Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Protecting crops from radiation-contaminated soil

05.03.2015

Almost four years after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, farmland remains contaminated with higher-than-natural levels of radiocesium in some regions of Japan, with cesium-134 and cesium-137 being the most troublesome because of the slow rate at which they decay.

In a study published in Scientific Reports, a group at the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science in Japan led by Ryoung Shin has identified a chemical compound that prevents plants from taking up cesium, thus protecting them--and us--from its harmful effects.


(Top) Compared to controls, plants grown in cesium-contaminated soil show less growth and unhealthy leaves. (Bottom) Adding CsTolen A to the soil dramatically improved the growth of plants grown in cesium-contaminated soil.

Credit: RIKEN

Although cesium has no beneficial function in plants, it is readily absorbed by plants in contaminated soil due to its water solubility and its similarity to potassium, a critical plant nutrient. After being absorbed, it continues to compete with potassium inside plant cells, disrupting physiological processes and causing major retardation in plant growth. Because of this, the research team focused their efforts on finding a way to prevent cesium uptake.

First, they used seedlings from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and tested 10,000 synthetic compounds to determine if any could reverse the harmful effects of cesium. The effects of each compound were quantified with a scoring scale, and after several screenings, they had found five compounds that made plants highly tolerant to cesium.

Next they looked at how these five compounds--termed CsTolen A-E--produced their effects. They found that when Arabidopsis was grown in cesium-containing liquid media with CsTolen A, more cesium remained in the liquid medium and much less was found in the plants. Importantly, the concentration of CsTolen A needed for this effect did not prevent the plants from absorbing the potassium that they need to grow. Further tests showed that rather than helping cells to expel cesium after it has been initially absorbed, CsTolen A acted to prevent cesium from entering the roots.

Quantum mechanical modeling indicated that although CsTolen A likely binds to other alkali metal ions, such as potassium and sodium, it should preferentially bind to cesium in aqueous solutions. This was confirmed by testing in which CsTolen A did not reverse sodium-induced or potassium deficiency-induced growth retardation, indicating that its effects appear to be specific to cesium.

Most importantly, when plants were germinated and grown in cesium-contaminated soil, applying CsTolen A significantly reduced the amount of cesium absorption and resulted in greater plant growth.

As Japan prepares to mark the fourth year since the events of March 2011, lead author Eri Adams notes that, "we think our findings shed some light on the possibility of using chemicals to prevent agricultural products from being contaminated." This technique is called phytostabilization, and Adams adds that, "unlike other methods such as genetic modification, use of chemicals is a powerful tool that can alter plant responses to the environment regardless of their species, which is especially true in the case of CsTolen A because it binds to cesium before it can enter the plants."

Shin's research unit is devoted to finding solutions to several environmental and agricultural problems through studying the mechanisms of nutrient uptake. Not only will the current findings help plants, but by reducing the amount of radiocesium that enters them, it should also ensure the safety of agricultural products grown in contaminated soil. As decontaminating large areas of farmland is a difficult venture at best, CsTolen A could be a game saver for regions affected by radiocesium contamination.

###

Reference: Adams E, Chaban V, Khandelia H, Shin R (2015). Selective chemical binding enhances cesium tolerance in plants through inhibition of cesium uptake. Scientific Reports. doi: 10.1038/srep08842

Adam Phillips | EurekAlert!

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Filling intercropping info gap
16.11.2017 | American Society of Agronomy

nachricht Climate change, population growth may lead to open ocean aquaculture
05.10.2017 | Oregon State University

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>