Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Midge-hunting scientists tackle spread of devastating bluetongue virus

08.08.2008
Scientists at the BBSRC-funded Institute for Animal Health (IAH) are stepping up the battle against the devastating and economically damaging bluetongue virus.

By combining ingenious ways to trap and monitor midges with cutting edge computer modelling and weather predictions the IAH team are gaining an understanding of how the insects spread the disease so that they can improve surveillance methods and advise farmers how and when to protect their animals.

The scientists are collecting data on midge numbers and biting behaviour from midge-hunting expeditions in southern England. They incorporate this with meteorological data from Met Office colleagues to develop complex mathematical models that can be used to establish under what weather conditions the midges are mostly likely to be flying around and when they are most likely to be giving disease-spreading bites to farm animals.

This will allow the team, led by Dr Simon Carpenter, to advise farmers when it is safest to move susceptible animals and also examine how stabling of animals can be used where logistically possible to reduce the chance of infectious midge bites. They will also use this data to establish best practice for use of insecticides and timing of vaccination of animals against this economically important and difficult to control disease.

Lead researcher Dr Simon Carpenter said: "These experiments are vital - it's about knowing your enemy. Last year, in northern Europe, bluetongue cost over £95 million in direct losses alone. And while indirect losses in the UK last year were considerable, we have yet to experience the full effects of a BTV outbreak as has been seen on the continent. A major 2008 outbreak could bring huge hardship both to directly affected farmers and, if vaccination coverage is poor, to those living in neighbouring movement restriction zones.

Hence it is vital that, firstly, as many farmers vaccinate their stock as possible and secondly, we collect basic data to understand how these outbreaks occur and what can be done to slow their progress. We have to think to ourselves: "when are the midges going to be active and what can we do to put a barrier between our livestock and these midges?" We will use our models to advise on best practice for measures such as stabling, insecticide use and vaccination, to control the spread of bluetongue virus."

The team has developed two methods to monitor the flying and biting behaviour of the Culicoides midge that spreads the disease, under particular weather conditions. The first uses a large net of known volume mounted on top of a 4x4 truck, which is driven through grazing land. By driving at a constant speed of 20mph over a known distance the scientists can precisely calculate the volume of air passing through the net and therefore calculate the number of Culicoides midges per cubic metre of air. All of the insects caught in the net are taken back to the lab to sort out the Culicoides midges from other insects, including different midge species.

The second method focuses on the biting rate of the midges and uses a large muslin tent, the walls of which are lowered around a penned grazing sheep after an exposure period of ten minutes. The scientists then enter the tented area and collect any midges that have landed on the walls and ceiling of the tent as well as examining the sheep for any further biting individuals. These midges can then be analysed in the lab to establish which species is carrying out the biting.

Dr Carpenter continued: "The benefit of these techniques is that, until very recently, midge surveillance relied upon the use of light traps that sometimes do not represent what is happing on animals particularly well. Using these two techniques we can more easily understand the relationship between weather conditions and both background midge activity and biting attacks, and also predict the level of risk at different times of the year. These models can then be used along with weather forecasting to advise farmers as to when Culicoides populations are most active and to develop best practice for controlling the spread of the midges and the virus itself.

"All of this work contributes to the aims for better knowledge about Culicoides that were set out in the European Food Safety Authority's 'Scientific Opinion on Bluetongue' published a couple of weeks ago."

Kevin Pearce, National Farmers Union, said: "Bluetongue is a terrible disease of ruminant livestock. Our farmers have worked hard to contain this virus in the infected areas of the south east and East Anglia through vaccination and vigilance but we know that we couldn't have achieved this without the effort and knowledge of the scientists at IAH. Bluetongue shares its transmission vector - the midge - with other exotic, but equally serious, diseases such as African Horse Sickness so any knowledge and understanding of the midges' behaviour and breeding patterns are welcome. We wish the experts at IAH success in their endeavours with this project."

| alfa
Further information:
http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product
02.12.2016 | Purdue University

nachricht New findings about the deformed wing virus, a major factor in honey bee colony mortality
11.11.2016 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>