Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Barley adapts to climate change

25.01.2012
The upsurge in droughts is one of the main consequences of climate change, and affects crops in particular.

However, Anabel Robredo, a biologist at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), has confirmed that in the case of barley at least, climate change itself is providing it with self-defence mechanisms to tackle a lack of water.

Climate change is in fact also responsible for a considerable increase in the concentration of CO2, a gas that, paradoxically, is providing this plant with certain characteristics enabling it to offset the effects of drought. Her thesis is entitled Mecanismos fisiológicos de respuesta de la cebada al impacto de la sequia y el elevado CO2: adaptación al cambio climático (Physiological Response Mechanisms of Barley to the impact of drought and elevated CO2: adaptation to climate change).

Various international publications have also echoed this research, the most recent being Environmental and Experimental Botany.

Basically, Robredo has analysed the effect that takes place in the barley as a result of the combination of two of the main consequences brought to us by climate change: the enriching of CO2 and drought. As the researcher explains, “the atmospheric concentration of this gas has increased considerably within the last few decades, and it is expected to increase much more. So we compared barley plants that grow in a CO2 concentration equal to the current (ambient) one with others cultivated in double the concentration, which is what we are expected to reach by the end of this century." The study was carried out through a progressive imposition of drought so it also determined the capacity of these plants to recover following the lack of irrigation, in an ambient CO2 concentration as well as in the one expected for the future.

More efficient use of water

When discussing plants in general, the effects of an elevated concentration of CO2 were already known. The bibliographical references quoted by Robredo show that this is in fact so, since among other things, this elevated concentration increases biomass, root growth and total leaf area, and alters net photosynthesis rates and efficiency in water use. The so-called stomatal conductance is one of the keys, explains the researcher: “Stomata are pores that plants have in their leaves, and it is through them that they carry out the water and air exchange. When a plant is subjected to a high level of CO2, it closes its stomata to a certain degree. This causes the water to escape less, which is translated into greater efficiency in its use.”

So a greater concentration of CO2 would appear to put the plants in an advantageous situation to address droughts. “If they use the water more slowly, they use it more efficiently and can grow over a longer period of time,” explains Robredo. At least this is what she has been able to confirm in the case of barley. The results show that even though drought is harmful, its effect on barley is less when combined with an elevated concentration of CO2. In comparison with a situation in which an ambient level of this gas exists, its increase causes leaf and soil water content to fall less, the rates of photosynthesis to be maintained for longer, growth to be greater and the assimilation of nitrogen and carbon to be less affected. The researcher does in fact explain the importance of maintaining the balance between the nitrogen and the carbon: “Both the take-up of carbon and the assimilation of nitrogen have increased in a balanced way.”

On the other hand, when irrigation is re-established in barley plants that have been through a drought, its effect has been seen to revert more rapidly to its original state under elevated CO2 conditions, in most of the parameters analysed.

It cannot be extrapolated

So, under future CO2 conditions, the negative repercussions of drought driven by climate change would be delayed further in comparison with the current concentration of this gas. In the case of barley this is so. However, can these results be extrapolated to other crops? As this researcher points out, it is not that simple: “You have to be very careful because plant species often respond very differently, even displaying the opposite. But what we can say is that most plant species tend to use water more efficiently in conditions of elevated CO2 and drought, and that they grow more.”

About the author

Anabel Robredo-Ruiz de Azua (Bilbao, 1976) is a graduate in Biological Sciences. She wrote up her thesis under the supervision of Dr. Alberto Muñoz Rueda (Professor of Plant Physiology) and Dr. Amaia Mena-Petite (Associate Professor), both from the Department of Plant Biology and Ecology of the Faculty of Science and Technology of the UPV/EHU. Today, Robredo belongs to PhD Research Personnel at the laboratory of Plant Physiology of this same department and faculty.

Amaia Portugal | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.elhuyar.com

Further reports about: CO2 CO2 concentration Climate change UPV/EHU crops plant species

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Six-legged livestock -- sustainable food production
11.05.2017 | Faculty of Science - University of Copenhagen

nachricht Elephant Herpes: Super-Shedders Endanger Young Animals
04.05.2017 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>