Molecular scaffolding makes for good bone structure.
Programmed molecules build themselves into a bone-mimic.
Scientists in the United States have made self-assembling synthetic bone1. Carefully designed building-blocks join up to mimic bone’s complex molecular-scale architecture, bringing better prosthetics a step closer.
Materials engineers are keen to emulate the strength and toughness of biominerals such as bone, tooth and shell. Mollusc shells, for example, a composite of the mineral calcium carbonate and sheets of organic tissue, are much tougher than an equivalent slab of the mineral alone. So, like a biomineral, the bone-mimic is a blend of hard mineral-like substances and soft organic ones.
Sam Stupp and colleagues of Northwestern University in Illinois have tailor-made small protein-like molecules called peptides. To each peptide they attached a tail that was insoluble in water, encouraging them to assemble into cylindrical columns with their tails pointing inwards, shielded from water.
These long, flexible columns formed a tangle of worm-like fibres. Stupp’s team fixed the fibres in place by bonding adjacent peptides on their surfaces. Similar bonds link collagen fibres into the connective tissue between cells.
The team also included molecular groups such as those that promote hydroxyapatite crystal formation in natural proteins. Finally, they added groups that make proteins stick to cells. These, they reasoned, would allow the self-assembling web to harbour living cells.
The researchers put this matrix in a solution of ions - primarily calcium and phosphate. Hydroxyapatite crystals grew on the scaffold; their atomic layers aligned with the fibres, just as they do on the collagen scaffold of bone.
PHILIP BALL | © Nature News Service
Decoding cement's shape promises greener concrete
08.12.2016 | Rice University
Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D
08.12.2016 | DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
08.12.2016 | Life Sciences
08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy
08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences