Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Nanoparticles: Polymer knots with silicon hearts

30.08.2013
Biocompatible complexes for drug delivery applications get a structural boost from nanoscale silicon cages

Protein-based drugs show promising activity against many hard-to-treat targets. Getting these biomolecules past the body’s numerous defenses, however, requires innovative technology such as drug-delivering nanoparticles. Polylactic acid (PLA) is a potential candidate because it is non-toxic, biodegradable, and spontaneously assembles into tiny structures under the right conditions.


Polylactic acid (PLA)-based organic–inorganic polymers (above) self-assemble into nanoparticle spheres with the potential for drug delivery. During polymerization, PLA (magenta) forms one of two mirror-image structures.

Reproduced, with permission, from Ref. 1 © 2012 Royal Society of Chemistry

Chaobin He from the A*STAR Institute of Materials Research and Engineering in Singapore and co-workers have developed a robust method to synthesize PLA nanoparticles using copolymer technology and a rigid ‘nanocage’ made from silicon.

During polymerization, PLA forms into one of two mirror-image compounds, known as L-type or D-type (see image). When chemists mix L- and D-type PLA chains together, their complementary shapes interlock through a process known as stereocomplexation. Recently, chemists have found that constructing PLA chains containing discrete ‘blocks’ of L- and D-compounds brings unprecedented control over nanoparticle formation — allowing them to produce distinct shapes.

Although stereocomplexation improves the mechanical attributes of PLA nanoparticles, many of these compounds aggregate undesirably after a few days in water. He and his team investigated whether they could retain the nanoparticles’ shape using silsequioxane, a stiff and small framework of silicon–oxygen atoms that has a strong record of boosting polymer strength at the molecular level.

After connecting silsequioxane to individual L- and D-type PLA chains, the researchers used a process called atom transfer radical polymerization to generate organic–inorganic hybrid co-polymers with well-defined PLA and silsequioxane segments. When they mixed two block co-polymers with complementary L- and D- PLA segments into polar organic solvents that hold slight electrical charges, the chains self-assembled into nanoscale spheres. Because co-polymers without matching L- and D-segments remained in solution under the same conditions, the team deduced that stereocomplexation is the primary force driving nanoparticle formation.

Experiments revealed that the silicon nanocages significantly improved PLA nanoparticle stability: even after a month in diluted aqueous solution, these hybrid compounds retained their unique shapes. Furthermore, the team found that incorporating longer silsequioxane units into the PLA chains caused the nanoparticles to assemble into smaller spheres. According to He, this suggests that the inorganic constituent can influence the probability of stereocomplexation — findings that open opportunities to precisely tune nanoparticle size and shape.

He and co-workers anticipate that their nanoparticles might enhance the properties of PLA plastics used for medical implants by acting as novel ‘filler’ substances. He explains that the tiny compounds should enhance interfacial adhesion inside large sheets of PLA, thereby augmenting its ductility and toughness.

The A*STAR-affiliated researchers contributing to this research are from the Institute of Materials Research and Engineering

Journal information

Tan, B. H., Hussain, H., Leong, Y. W., Lin, T. T., Tjiu, W. W. & He, C. Tuning self-assembly of hybrid PLA-P(MA-POSS) block copolymers in solution via stereocomplexation. Polymer Chemistry 4, 1250–1259 (2013).

A*STAR Research | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.research.a-star.edu.sg/research/6723
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Watching atoms move in hybrid perovskite crystals reveals clues to improving solar cells
22.11.2017 | University of California - San Diego

nachricht Fine felted nanotubes: CAU research team develops new composite material made of carbon nanotubes
22.11.2017 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New proton record: Researchers measure magnetic moment with greatest possible precision

High-precision measurement of the g-factor eleven times more precise than before / Results indicate a strong similarity between protons and antiprotons

The magnetic moment of an individual proton is inconceivably small, but can still be quantified. The basis for undertaking this measurement was laid over ten...

Im Focus: Frictional Heat Powers Hydrothermal Activity on Enceladus

Computer simulation shows how the icy moon heats water in a porous rock core

Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

IceCube experiment finds Earth can block high-energy particles from nuclear reactions

24.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 'half-hearted' solution to one-sided heart failure

24.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

Heidelberg Researchers Study Unique Underwater Stalactites

24.11.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>