Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Biotech materials made simple – crystal structures altered by a single protein

12.03.2015

Nacre is not just something pretty to be used for jewellery and decoration. It possesses an intricate layer structure with high strength and hardness, and the naturally formed crystals it contains have some particular properties. This is why industry is working to produce similar materials using biological models.

Scientists in Haifa and Saarbrücken have now succeeded in replicating the combination of calcium carbonate and biopolymeric compounds which nature took millions of years and a host of environmental factors to achieve. Using a very simple method, they have been able to show that a single protein species is enough to produce specific effects on the formation of crystal structures.


Perlucin has several characteristic protein strands, here indicated by colored loops in a BallView model. They are assumed to cause the observed structural alterations in calcium carbonate crystals.

Copyright: INM; only free within this press release

The results of their research have recently been published as a cover publication in the journal Chemistry of Materials.

In nacre, layer lattices of inorganic calcium carbonate alternate with layers of organic material. Chitin, collagen and various proteins ensure that the calcium carbonate grows in these defined layers. What role the proteins play during growth had not previously been explained, but the assumption was that several proteins acted together to control the structure of the calcium carbonate lattice as well as themselves forming part of the nacreous layers.

However, Ingrid Weiss of the INM – Leibniz Institute for New Materials in Saarbrücken and her colleague Boaz Pokroy at the Technion Israel Institute of Technology have now shown that the crystal lattice of calcium carbonate can be altered using just a single protein species.

“This finding simplifies matters and opens up new possibilities for white biotechnology”, says Weiss, who is Head of the Biomineralization Program at the INM. “Until now, white biotechnology has labored under the idea that mineralization could not be recreated using biological models, because it was assumed that it took a combination of several proteins and a number of factors that were not readily understandable to make biomineralization possible”, she explains. If the natural processes appeared too complicated, they would not be pursued in industrial development.

Pokroy and Weiss have now proved that it need not be that complicated.

In their experiments, the researchers extracted the protein perlucin from abalone (Haliotis) shells and combined it with green fluorescent protein (GFP), a trick which enabled them to convert the insoluble perlucin to a water-soluble form. They added this solution at different concentrations to a calcium carbonate solution and examined the crystals produced. The results were compared to crystals produced from a pure calcium carbonate solution and crystals produced from a calcium carbonate solution with GFP.

Only the dissolved perlucin was incorporated in the inorganic carbonate lattice, where it produced notable and wide-ranging distortions to the lattice. The effect follows a principle of “all or nothing”: small quantities of protein are already enough to cause defined lattice distortions. Once the distortion starts, it then reproduces itself continually across the lattice. “GFP alone simply coexists with calcium carbonate – it surrounds the calcium carbonate lattice like a jacket without changing it”, explains the biomineralization expert. As in a shell, it seems to be the perlucin that influences the growth and structure of the crystal lattice.

To explain this phenomenon, the researchers used the INM’s expertise in mussel proteins and the expertise in crystal analysis at the Institute in Haifa. This combination made it possible to observe the reactions of perlucin in the crystal lattice. The scientists are now keen to see whether other proteins have specific effects on the structure and functionality of inorganic crystal lattices.

Original publication:
Eva Weber, Leonid Bloch, Christina Guth, Andy N. Fitch, Ingrid M. Weiss and Boaz Pokroy; Chem. Mater., 2014, 26 (17), pp 4925–4932,
DOI: 10.1021/cm500450s; http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cm500450s

Your experts:
Dr. Ingrid Weiss (PD)
INM – Leibniz Institute for New Materials
Head Biomineralization
Tel: 0681-9300-318
ingrid.weiss@inm-gmbh.de

Prof. Boaz Pokroy
Technion – Israel Institute of Technology; Haifa
Bio-Inspired Surface Engineering and Biomineralization
Phone: +972-4-8294584
bpokroy@tx.technion.ac.ilI

INM conducts research and development to create new materials – for today, tomorrow and beyond. Chemists, physicists, biologists, materials scientists and engineers team up to focus on these essential questions: Which material properties are new, how can they be investigated and how can they be tailored for industrial applications in the future? Four research thrusts determine the current developments at INM: New materials for energy application, new concepts for medical surfaces, new surface materials for tribological systems and nano safety and nano bio. Research at INM is performed in three fields: Nanocomposite Technology, Interface Materials, and Bio Interfaces.
INM – Leibniz Institute for New Materials, situated in Saarbrücken, is an internationally leading centre for materials research. It is an institute of the Leibniz Association and has about 195 employees.

Dr. Carola Jung | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Further information:
http://www.inm-gmbh.de

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Mat4Rail: EU Research Project on the Railway of the Future
23.02.2018 | Universität Bremen

nachricht Atomic structure of ultrasound material not what anyone expected
21.02.2018 | North Carolina State University

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Attoseconds break into atomic interior

A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.

In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...

Im Focus: Good vibrations feel the force

A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.

By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...

Im Focus: Developing reliable quantum computers

International research team makes important step on the path to solving certification problems

Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Basque researchers turn light upside down

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Finnish research group discovers a new immune system regulator

23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Attoseconds break into atomic interior

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>