Heidelberg scientist investigates preconditions for longer working lives
Health, qualifications and motivation are the crucial factors determining whether, as a consequence of demographic change, wage-earners can or should go on working past the age of 67. To tap the potential of older staff members to the full, employers need to create favourable parameters and preconditions.
However, personnel and health management measures and improvements in workplace design should not be postponed until employees are heading for retirement, they should be implemented throughout their working lives. These are the findings produced by a study undertaken by Prof. Dr. Karlheinz Sonntag, industrial and organisational psychologist at Heidelberg University.
The study was commissioned by Arbeitgeberverband Gesamtmetall – Federation of German Employers’ Associations in the Metal and Electrical Engineering Industries – and targeted at the age group between 55 and 70. Prof. Sonntag evaluated some 150 studies and research reports on the work efficiency of older employees.
The investigation was prompted by demographic developments: life expectancy is rising but in future there will be significantly fewer workers available for companies and enterprises. At the same time, the trend in the working world is away from physically demanding manual work and towards jobs requiring cognitive and social skills.
Prof. Sonntag emphasises that retirement from the world of work is not bound up with any “naturally predetermined” limit. “In addition,” he says, “it is by no means inevitable for work efficiency and effectiveness to deteriorate as a result of advanced age.” The course taken by our physical and cognitive abilities differs widely from one person to the next, says the psychologist.
Notably in the cognitive sphere, changes should not always be equated with deterioration. Though it is true that high work intensity, time pressure and low autonomy do have a detrimental effect on the work quality achieved by older employees, this is not the whole story. “In concrete terms,” says Prof. Sonntag, “older workers only come off worse when information has to be processed quickly. But this is offset by demonstrable assets like experience and expertise, where older employees come up trumps.”
According to Prof. Sonntag, three factors play a crucial role in the exploitation of this potential: health, qualifications and motivation. Employees themselves need to assume a degree of responsibility in connection with these factors if they want to derive success and satisfaction from their work in the later stages of their careers.
But the Heidelberg work-psychologist also strongly recommends companies and enterprises to institute measures of a supportive nature. “One important thing is preventive health management regularly and systematically analysing stressors and resources,” says Prof. Sonntag. “Job design is another decisive factor. In this area ergonomics, organisation and job content are equally important.”
In connection with qualifications, the psychology professor underlines the necessity of systematic and appropriate personnel development, allowing for self-determined learning periods and individual learning speeds and linking this with existing knowledge. In terms of motivation, Prof. Sonntag stresses the importance of unprejudiced superiors who are encouraging and appreciative to the people working for them.
While some of these measures have already been commonly established, the companies, the employees themselves and also the employers’ associations and unions need to devote more attention to these topics.
Prof. Dr. Karlheinz Sonntag
Institute of Psychology
Department of industrial and organizational psychology
Phone: +49 6221 547320
Communications and Marketing
Phone +49 6221 54-2311
Marietta Fuhrmann-Koch | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
New measure for the wellbeing of populations could replace Human Development Index
07.11.2018 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Because not only arguments count
30.10.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften (MPIMIS)
Dead and alive at the same time? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have implemented Erwin Schrödinger’s paradoxical gedanken experiment employing an entangled atom-light state.
In 1935 Erwin Schrödinger formulated a thought experiment designed to capture the paradoxical nature of quantum physics. The crucial element of this gedanken...
Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing.
It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains:
The phenomenon of so-called superlubricity is known, but so far the explanation at the atomic level has been missing: for example, how does extremely low friction occur in bearings? Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institutes IWM and IWS jointly deciphered a universal mechanism of superlubricity for certain diamond-like carbon layers in combination with organic lubricants. Based on this knowledge, it is now possible to formulate design rules for supra lubricating layer-lubricant combinations. The results are presented in an article in Nature Communications, volume 10.
One of the most important prerequisites for sustainable and environmentally friendly mobility is minimizing friction. Research and industry have been dedicated...
Just in time for Christmas, a Mars-analogue mission in Morocco, coordinated by the Robotics Innovation Center of the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) as part of the SRC project FACILITATORS, has been successfully completed. SRC, the Strategic Research Cluster on Space Robotics Technologies, is a program of the European Union to support research and development in space technologies. From mid-November to mid-December 2018, a team of more than 30 scientists from 11 countries tested technologies for future exploration of Mars and Moon in the desert of the Maghreb state.
Close to the border with Algeria, the Erfoud region in Morocco – known to tourists for its impressive sand dunes – offered ideal conditions for the four-week...
Research opens doors in photonic quantum information processing, optical signal processing and microwave photonics
Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a new integrated photonics platform that can...
16.01.2019 | Event News
14.01.2019 | Event News
12.12.2018 | Event News
17.01.2019 | Life Sciences
16.01.2019 | Life Sciences
16.01.2019 | Physics and Astronomy