An ultra-high-resolution imaging technique using X-ray diffraction is a step closer to fulfilling its promise as a window on nanometer-scale structures in biological samples.
In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers report progress in applying an approach to "lensless" X-ray microscopy that they introduced one year ago. They have produced the first images, using this technique, of biological cells – specifically the intriguing polyextremophile Deinococcus radiourans.
Better ability to see nanoscale structures in cells could yield important insights for evolutionary biology and biotechnology. In the case of D. radiourans, for example, it could help to settle questions about whether – or how – the structure of this organism's DNA-bearing nucleoid region accounts for its hardiness against ionizing radiation. Having demonstrated the resolution, reliability, and reproducibility of their technique, the researchers are now working to extend it to three-dimensional imaging of biological cells.
X-ray imaging is best known for its medical applications, such as traditional radiographs and CT scans. Yet the use of X-rays goes far beyond routine imaging. In particular, the very short wavelength of X-ray radiation allows various modes of microscopy that can reach the nanometer resolution. One of the main hurdles to high-resolution X-ray microscopy is the difficulty of producing high-quality X-ray lenses. To overcome these difficulties, so-called "lensless" microscopy methods have emerged in the last decade. A technique developed by researchers now in the biomedical physics group at Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) has shown great promise for ultra-high resolution imaging of materials and life science samples.
This imaging technique, called ptychography, was first introduced in the 1970s for electron diffraction. It consists in measuring full far-field diffraction patterns as a small illumination is scanned on a sample. While its use in electron microscopy is still limited, ptychography has gained tremendous popularity in the X-ray imaging community in the last few years, thanks to the development by Franz Pfeiffer, now chair of the biomedical physics group at TUM, and his team. A critical step in the development of ptychography was published by the team one year ago in Science. The super-resolution capability of the imaging method was successfully demonstrated with a gold test structure.
Now a collaboration of the Pfeiffer group, together with researchers at University of Goettingen and at the Swiss Light Source (Villigen, Switzerland), has gone a step further and produced the first images of biological cells with the same technique.
These results, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, show that lensless X-ray imaging, in particular ptychography, can be used to obtain accurate maps of the electron density forming a biological sample. This type of quantitative measurement is extremely difficult with most other high-resolution techniques currently available. Moreover, biological samples are very fragile and nearly transparent to X-rays, making this type of accurate measurement even more challenging.
The Pfeiffer group is now moving beyond this success and looking into ways of improving the technique further. In particular, the team is aiming at the next milestone: three-dimensional imaging of biological samples.
This research is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG), the Helmholtz Society, and the German Ministry of Education and Research.
K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, T. Salditt, Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy, PNAS Early Edition, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Dec. 7-11, 2009. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0905846107
P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy, Science 321, 379 – 381 (2008). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/321/5887/379Contacts:
Andreas Battenberg | EurekAlert!
When fluid flows almost as fast as light -- with quantum rotation
22.06.2018 | The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences
Thermal Radiation from Tiny Particles
22.06.2018 | Universität Greifswald
In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.
Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...
Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences
22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences
22.06.2018 | Life Sciences