By learning more about the microscopic structure and physics of clouds, scientists are now better able to predict how the climate will respond. This research has been carried out as part of a major programme, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), to determine what impact ice clouds have on the Earth’s climate system.
For the first time the scientists have shown that, within larger clouds, there are layers of super-cooled water cloud at temperatures as low as –30°C. These layers are not currently represented in weather and climate prediction models, but they are an important factor in determining whether the heat radiation is reflected back or allowed to pass through the cloud.
Research also shows that within the thin and wispy cirrus clouds that form from ice crystals high in the atmosphere, there are various concentrations of crystal numbers and shapes within different ‘regions’ of each cloud.
Programme leader, Professor Tom Choularton from the University of Manchester, explains why this is important. “The regions with small numbers of large crystals are relatively transparent and allow light through, whereas areas with an abundance of very small crystals scatter the incoming light. These differences have a huge effect on the amount of sunlight actually reaching the ground.”
A research team based at Imperial College, London, has developed a new instrument to measure the radiative properties of both ice clouds and clear air. They designed it for use on scientific aircraft and headed for Darwin in Northern Australia to observe the far infrared (very long wavelength) radiative properties of the skies around deep convective tropical storm regions.
Professor Choularton says,” This important work is still underway. We aim to link these measurements with the information we now know about the size, number and shape of ice crystals in clouds. The results will help us to test how well the effects of these clouds are represented in climate prediction and weather forecasting models.”
This research is just some of the exciting atmospheric science being showcased at a conference in London on Tuesday 23 January. ‘Our Changing Atmosphere’ highlights the work from four major research programmes to increase our understanding of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, and to quantify the effect of greenhouse gases on climate and air quality. NERC has invested £20 million in the four programmes.
Marion O'Sullivan | alfa
UNH scientists help provide first-ever views of elusive energy explosion
16.11.2018 | University of New Hampshire
NASA keeps watch over space explosions
16.11.2018 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.
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Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.
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Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.
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On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.
When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure
Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...
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