Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

ORNL mirrors powerful tools for studying micro-, nano-materials

21.07.2005


Precision mirrors to focus X-rays and neutron beams could speed the path to new materials and perhaps help explain why computers, cell phones and satellites go on the blink.



In the last few years, a team led by Gene Ice of the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory has improved by a factor of nearly 10 the performance of mirrors that enable researchers to examine variations in structure and chemistry and even individual nanoparticles. Information at this fine level is essential to understanding composition and structure of materials, and researchers continue to push the boundaries.

"There’s a worldwide race to develop high-performance mirrors that will dramatically expand the capabilities of major science facilities like the Advanced Photon Source and the Spallation Neutron Source," said Ice, a member of ORNL’s Metals & Ceramics Division. "We are now able to see in far greater detail the three-dimensional heterogeneous - or dissimilar -- structure of materials and study internal interactions of one nanoparticle next to another."


The stage was set a few years ago when Ice and colleagues developed differentially deposited X-ray micro-focusing mirrors. When installed on a beam line at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, these mirrors allowed researchers to obtain a resolution of 500 nanometers. One nanometer is equivalent to about three atoms in width. With recent advances in the optics and manufacturing processes, the ORNL team and collaborators at Argonne have now obtained a resolution of 70 nanometers. The ultimate goal is 1 nanometer.

The advantage of using mirrors instead of other techniques is that their focal properties are nearly independent of X-ray or neutron wavelengths. This allows them to be used to perform experiments that could not be done with other methods.

Neutron beams and X-rays both provide non-destructive testing of small samples of materials and allow scientists to examine grain boundary stresses, crystalline structure and orientation of the grains that make up material. Neutron beams probe deeper into a material and are especially useful for studying magnetic materials and structures with low atomic numbers -- hydrogen, helium and carbon -- while X-rays can examine individual nanoparticles.

The X-ray mirrors, which are similar to ones that received an R&D 100 award in 2000, are about 20 millimeters long, or about the size of a quarter. One mirror of the two-mirror system was fabricated using a differential polishing method while the other was made by profile coating an ultra-flat substrate. Both techniques produce monolithic optics more stable and more compact than is possible with dynamically bent mirror optics.

Neutron mirrors are much bigger -- about 800 millimeters (31.5 inches) long -- and increase the effectiveness of small neutron beams by a factor of about 100. Fabrication methods for neutron mirrors are further along than those for X-ray mirrors, which Ice describes as a work in progress. In both cases, precision is critical. The surface profile of an X-ray mirror must be within 1/10th of a micro-radian, which, to put into perspective, is equivalent to a deviation of just 6/1,000ths of an inch over a mile, Ice said.

This research addresses a number of goals of DOE’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences, which seeks a better understanding of three-dimension grain growth, deformation of polycrystals and cracks at the so-called mesoscale - materials between 1/10th of a micron to hundreds of microns. With this knowledge, researchers hope to answer questions about electrical migration in interconnects within integrated circuits. Failures at this level lead to problems with electronic equipment in everything from automobiles to satellites.

This research has attracted considerable attention from NASA and several potential industry partners, including Ford Motor Corp. and General Electric, according to Ice, who describes the response as "overwhelming."

Other ORNL researchers involved in the project are Ben Larson, John Budai and John Tischler of the Condensed Matter Sciences Division and Eliot Specht and Judy Pang of the Metals & Ceramics Division.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy.

Ron Walli | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ornl.gov

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Smallest transistor worldwide switches current with a single atom in solid electrolyte
17.08.2018 | Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)

nachricht Protecting the power grid: Advanced plasma switch for more efficient transmission
17.08.2018 | DOE/Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Smallest transistor worldwide switches current with a single atom in solid electrolyte

17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Robots as Tools and Partners in Rehabilitation

17.08.2018 | Information Technology

Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves

17.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>