New stringent test of the Standard Model and the mechanism by which the Higgs imparts mass to other particles
Scientists running the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world’s largest and most powerful “atom smasher,” report the first evidence of a process that can be used to test the mechanism by which the recently discovered Higgs particle imparts mass to other fundamental particles.
More rare than the production of the Higgs itself, this process—a scattering of two same-charged particles called W bosons off one another—also provides a new stringent test of the Standard Model of particle physics. The findings, which so far are in agreement with predictions of the Standard Model, are reported in a paper just accepted by Physical Review Letters.
“Only about one in 100 trillion proton-proton collisions would produce one of these events,” said Marc-André Pleier, a physicist at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory who played a leadership role in the analysis of this result for the ATLAS collaboration. Complicating matters further, finding one such rare event is not enough.
“You need to observe many to see if the production rate is above or on par with predictions,” Pleier said. “We looked through billions of proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC for a signature of these events—decay products that allow us to infer like Sherlock Holmes what happened in the event.”
The analysis efforts started two years ago and were carried out in particular by groups from Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Michigan State University, and Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. Preliminary results were presented by Pleier at the “Rencontres de Moriond – QCD and High Energy Interactions” conference in March 2014.
Now finalized based on a total of 34 observed events, the measured interaction rate is in good agreement with that predicted by the Standard Model, a theory describing all known fundamental particles and their interactions.
“The Standard Model has so far survived all tests, but we know that it is incomplete because there are observations of dark matter, dark energy, and the antimatter/matter asymmetry in the universe that can’t be explained by the Standard Model,” Pleier said. So physicists are always looking for new ways to test the theory, to find where and how it might break down.
“This process of W boson interactions is one we could never test,” Pleier said, “because we didn’t have enough energy or large enough data sets needed to see this very rare process—until we built the LHC.”
Now with the LHC data in hand, the measured rate agrees with the prevailing theory’s predictions and establishes a signal at a significance level of 3.6 sigma—strong evidence, according to Pleier. “The probability for this measurement to be a mere background fluctuation is very small—about one in 6000,” he said. But the physicists would like to be more certain by collecting more data to reduce uncertainties and increase the level of significance.
There’s another reason for continuing the quest: “By measuring this process we can check whether the Higgs particle we discovered does its job the way we expect it to,” Pleier said. “A wealth of models in addition to the Higgs mechanism exists to try to explain how fundamental particles get their mass. Measurements of such scattering processes can thus be both a fundamental test of the Standard Model and a window to new physics.”
To test the Higgs mechanism, the scientists compare distributions of decay products of the W scattering process—how often they observe particular products at a particular energy and geometrical configuration.
“It’s like a fingerprint,” Pleier said.“We have a predicted fingerprint and we have the fingerprint we measure. If the fingerprints match, we know that the Higgs does its job of mass generation the way it should. But if it deviates, we know that some other physics mechanism is helping out because the Higgs alone is not doing what we expect.”
Again, so far, the data indicate that the Higgs is working as expected.
“For the first time, we can rule out certain models or predictions that we could not before,” Pleier said. “To complete the job, we need more data, at higher energy, so we can see the fingerprint more clearly.”
The LHC will resume data taking at increased collision energies—13 tera-electronvolts (TeV) instead of 8 TeV—in spring of 2015. The datasets collected will be up to 150 times the size of the currently available data and will allow for a detailed behind-the-scenes look at the Higgs at work.
The ATLAS experiment at LHC is supported by DOE’s Office of Science and the National Science Foundation.
Brookhaven National Laboratory serves as the U.S. host laboratory for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, and plays multiple roles in this international collaboration, from construction and project management to data storage, distribution, and analysis, funded by the DOE Office of Science (HEP). For more information about Brookhaven’s role, see: http://www.bnl.gov/ATLAS/
DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.
One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE's Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by the Research Foundation for the State University of New York on behalf of Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit applied science and technology organization.
Karen Walsh | newswise
Smallest transistor worldwide switches current with a single atom in solid electrolyte
17.08.2018 | Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
Protecting the power grid: Advanced plasma switch for more efficient transmission
17.08.2018 | DOE/Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
17.08.2018 | Information Technology
17.08.2018 | Life Sciences