Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New record at ultracold neutron source in Mainz

15.01.2018

TRIGA research reactor at Mainz University improved the yield of its ultracold neutron source by a factor of 3.5 to 8.5 ultracold neutrons per cubic centimeter

Some ten years ago, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) entered a new field of research by starting to generate ultracold neutrons (UCN) for use in fundamental research in physics. Now that the new upgrade was installed, the participating researchers, physicists, and chemists can report another major breakthrough.


View of the reactor hall with beam tube C front left and beam tube D rear left

photo/©: Thomas Hartmann, JGU


Standardized stainless-steel cylinder, which is used as a storage vessel and for measurements

photo/©: Christopher Geppert, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry

They have been able to increase the UCN yield of their source by a factor of 3.5. This means that the prerequisites are now in place that are needed to begin the more sensitive measurements required to determine the lifetime of the free neutron.

Neutrons do not normally exist in a free state but are instead bound as neutral particles within the atomic nucleus. Free neutrons are unstable and decay with a lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. The TRIGA Mainz research reactor can generate thermal neutrons, which—by being brought into contact with solid deuterium at roughly minus 270 degrees Celsius—are furthermore slowed down so that they travel at just approximately five meters per second.

At this velocity, free neutrons can be stored and utilized in experiments. Scientists involved in fundamental research are particularly interested in determining the properties of these free neutrons, especially their lifetime and electric dipole moment, by means of highly accurate measurements. These have recently been supplemented by experiments to determine the electric charge of the neutron.

"The limiting factor in all these experiments and measurements is dictated by the density of ultracold neutrons we can achieve," explained Professor Werner Heil, one of the scientists at the UCN facility of Mainz University.

Scientists all around the world are currently developing new UCN sources. The Mainz TRIGA reactor can generate neutrons in pulse mode operation, which means that the reactor is pulsed every five minutes and thereby delivers a high neutron flux. After decelerating these neutrons using a block of solid deuterium, they are passed through a neutron guide, similar to a fiber-optic cable, for use in experiments outside the biological shield of the reactor. Besides the source upgrade the infrastructure has also been further improved.

The installation of a helium liquefier directly on site provides for more effective cooling of the deuterium crystal and creates excellent conditions for experiments to be run over long time periods. The neutrons from the reactor are transported to the site of experiments via electropolished stainless-steel tubes with an extremely smooth internal surface that prevents neutron losses. These tube inner walls have now received a new coating of a nickel-58-molybdenum alloy to further enhance their performance.

Internationally competitive UCN source in Mainz

With this set of measures, the scientists have succeeded in storing 8.5 UCN per cubic centimeter. "Compared to our previous results we were able to increase the UCN yield by a factor of 3.5," emphasized Professor Norbert Trautmann of the JGU Institute of Nuclear Chemistry. The storage vessel employed was a standardized stainless-steel cylinder, specially supplied by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland for normed measurements.

This vessel used for a comparative study of ultracold neutron sources in operation has a volume of 32 liters, which corresponds to typical storage vessels for UCN experiments. This setup is generally regarded as the most reliable way of undertaking the corresponding measurements. A density of 8.5 UCN per cubic centimeter puts Mainz in the premier league in this respect. "We are now fully competitive with the world’s leading institutes in the field," stated Heil.

"The increased UCN density is particularly important for lifetime experiments, which should start soon," added Professor Tobias Reich, head of the JGU Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, which accommodates the TRIGA reactor. The experiments will be performed within the framework of the Precision Physics, Fundamental Interactions and Structure of Matter (PRISMA) Cluster of Excellence at Mainz University, which has provided funds for the development of infrastructure and for personnel at the Mainz UCN source.

Thanks to the improved performance, the scientists are confident of achieving an enhanced quality of their experiments in the future in a much shorter time. Exactly determining the lifetime of the free neutron is of major interest because the two commonly used methods, i.e., storing UCN in material vessels and the 'neutron beam method' used to detect decay products (protons) in flight, yield different results. This may be due to either unrecognized systematic errors or to possible exotic decay channels, an indicator for physics beyond the Standard Model.

The UCN measurements were carried out using beam tube D of TRIGA Mainz. This source is mainly operated in pulse mode and is also available to external users. "For future experiments, such as lifetime measurements, we will be able to utilize the source in double-shift operation for three weeks from 8 a.m. to midnight," added Dr. Christopher Geppert, manager of the TRIGA Mainz.

Images:
http://www.uni-mainz.de/bilder_presse/09_kernchemie_ucn_upgrade_01.jpg
View of the reactor hall with beam tube C front left and beam tube D rear left
photo/©: Thomas Hartmann, JGU

http://www.uni-mainz.de/bilder_presse/09_kernchemie_ucn_upgrade_02.jpg
Standardized stainless-steel cylinder, which is used as a storage vessel and for measurements
photo/©: Christopher Geppert, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry

Publication:
Jan Kahlenberg et al.
Upgrade of the ultracold neutron source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz
The European Physical Journal A, 28 November 2017
DOI: 10.1140/epja/i2017-12428-9
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1140%2Fepja%2Fi2017-12428-9

Contact:
Professor Dr. Werner Heil
Quantum, Atomic, and Neutron Physics (QUANTUM)
Institute of Physics
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU)
55099 Mainz, GERMANY
phone +49 6131 39-22885
fax +49 6131 39-25179
e-mail: wheil@uni-mainz.de
http://www.ag-heil.physik.uni-mainz.de/

Professor Dr. Tobias Reich
Institute of Nuclear Chemistry
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU)
55099 Mainz, GERMANY
phone +49 6131 39-25250
e-mail: tobias.reich@uni-mainz.de
http://www.kernchemie.uni-mainz.de/eng/

Read more:
http://www.uni-mainz.de/presse/20540_ENG_HTML.php – press release "TUM and Mainz University activate new source of ultracold neutrons" (8 Nov. 2016) ;
http://www.uni-mainz.de/presse/14192_ENG_HTML.php – press release "Ultracold neutrons for science : UCNs will help to solve mysteries of astrophysics" (9 June 2011) ;
http://www.uni-mainz.de/presse/12971_ENG_HTML.php – press release "Physicists at Mainz University generate ultracold neutrons at the TRIGA reactor" (19 Dec. 2008) ;
http://www.uni-mainz.de/presse/14343_ENG_HTML.php – press release "Successful generation of ultracold neutrons" (1 Feb. 2006)

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.prisma.uni-mainz.de/triga.php – TRIGA Reactor and Neutron Source ;
http://www.ag-heil.physik.uni-mainz.de/342_ENG_HTML.php – UCN Source at the TRIGA Mainz

Petra Giegerich | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Further reports about: JGU TRIGA cylinder fundamental research reactor ultracold neutrons

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht What happens when we heat the atomic lattice of a magnet all of a sudden?
18.07.2018 | Forschungsverbund Berlin

nachricht Subaru Telescope helps pinpoint origin of ultra-high energy neutrino
16.07.2018 | National Institutes of Natural Sciences

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Machine-learning predicted a superhard and high-energy-density tungsten nitride

18.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts

18.07.2018 | Life Sciences

Why might reading make myopic?

18.07.2018 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>