Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists Discover Key to Effective Meningitis Vaccine

10.03.2011
A study conducted by Children’s Hospital & Research Center Oakland and University of Massachusetts Medical Center scientists identifies a new mutant vaccine antigen for Neisseria meningitidis (also called meningococcus) that has the potential to improve vaccine development against dangerous bacterial infections including meningitis.

The study, authored by Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) scientists Dan Granoff, MD, and Peter Beernink, PhD, and colleagues at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester MA, will be featured in the March 15, 2011 issue of the Journal of Immunology (published online February 16, 2011).

“It’s really quite gratifying to have a study like this that has direct translation into making better vaccines against infections, especially meningococcal disease,” said Dr. Granoff, Director of CHORI’s Center for Immunobiology and Vaccine Development. “This deadly disease affects hundreds of thousands of children throughout the world. Almost no other infection can kill a previously healthy child as fast as the meningococcus.”

Meningococci are bacteria responsible for causing meningitis and severe bloodstream infections. Young children and teenagers are particularly vulnerable. Even with the best treatment, 10 percent of those infected will not survive. About 20 percent of those who survive are left with long-term medical problems including loss of hearing, chronic seizures, and amputation of limbs.

While there are vaccines available for prevention of certain strains of the bacteria, there is no vaccine against “group B” strains, which account for approximately 40 percent of cases in the United States. Currently, there are two vaccines targeting group B strains in development. These vaccines utilize a novel antigen called factor H-binding protein (fHbp) to stimulate human immune responses against the bacteria. The fHbp antigen in the vaccines binds with human factor H (fH), a protein normally present in the bloodstream.

Dr. Granoff’s research, however, demonstrates that a simple change in the protein can greatly improve the efficacy of the vaccines. Because fH in animals differs from that in humans, genetically engineered mice were created in order to investigate the effect of fH binding on the fHbp vaccines.

A traditional animal study would not be able to capture the effects of this because fH in animals is slightly different than it is in humans. Dr. Granoff and his team got some help from genetically engineered mice.

When the mice with human fH (created by Sanjay Ram, MD, and Peter Rice, MD, at the University of Massachusetts in Worcester) were immunized, the fHbp antigen vaccine worked well in normal mice whose fH didn’t bind to the vaccine. But in the mice with human fH, the protective ability of the vaccine dropped four- to eight-fold. The more human fH a mouse had, the worse the level of protection the vaccine provided.

The same study, however, demonstrated a solution: Dr. Granoff and his colleagues showed that using an fHbp antigen with a slight mutation resulted in significant increases in protection.

“This mutant antigen has just one amino acid difference between it and the fHbp in the current vaccines, but that difference means that it no longer binds to human fH, and that resulted in much higher protective responses,” said Dr. Granoff.

In addition to significantly improving the current meningitis vaccines, the study also provides proof of principle that has the potential to be applied to vaccines against other bacteria that also utilize fH binding, like pneumococcus and Bordatella.

“Our study suggests that while a vaccine that actually targets fH binding proteins offers a unique opportunity to prevent disease, you probably need to develop forms of the vaccine that don’t bind to the host protein, said Dr. Granoff. “What we need to be looking for are mutants that make the antigen look like the fH binding proteins, but that remove the binding function.”

The study provides a solid foundation for the development of second generation meningococcal vaccines while also providing an approach for creating highly effective vaccines against other infectious bacteria.

About Children’s Hospital & Research Center Oakland
Children’s Hospital & Research Center Oakland is Northern California’s only independent not-for-profit regional medical center for children. Children’s Hospital Oakland is a national leader in many pediatric specialties and sub-specialties including hematology/oncology, neonatology, cardiology, orthopedics, sports medicine, and neurosurgery. The hospital is one of only two solely designated California Level 1 pediatric trauma centers with the largest pediatric inpatient critical care unit in the region. Children’s Hospital has 190 licensed beds, 201 hospital-based physicians in 30 specialties, more than 2,700 employees, and an annual operating budget of more than $350 million. Children’s is also a premier teaching hospital with an outstanding pediatric residency program and unique pediatric subspecialty fellowship programs.

Children’s research program, Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI), is internationally renowned for taking state-of-the-art basic and clinical research and translating it into interventions for treating and preventing human diseases. CHORI has 300 members of its investigative staff, a budget of about $50 million, and is ranked among the nation’s top 10 research centers in National Institutes of Health funding to children’s hospitals. For more information, go to www.childrenshospitaloakland.org and www.chori.org.

Erin Goldsmith | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.chori.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View
22.06.2018 | University of Sussex

nachricht New cellular pathway helps explain how inflammation leads to artery disease
22.06.2018 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Graphene assembled film shows higher thermal conductivity than graphite film

22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Fast rising bedrock below West Antarctica reveals an extremely fluid Earth mantle

22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View

22.06.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>