Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers identify Achilles heel of dengue virus, target for future vaccines

12.04.2012
A team of scientists from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Vanderbilt University have pinpointed the region on dengue virus that is neutralized in people who overcome infection with the deadly pathogen.

The results challenge the current state of dengue vaccine research, which is based on studies in mice and targets a different region of the virus.

"In the past researchers have relied on mouse studies to understand how the immune system kills dengue virus and assumed that the mouse studies would apply to people as well," said senior study author Aravinda M. de Silva, PhD, associate professor of microbiology and immunology at the UNC School of Medicine.

"Our study for the first time shows what region the immune system of humans target when they are fighting off the virus. The region on the virus targeted by the human immune system is quite different from the region targeted by mice."

The new research, which will appear online during the week of April 11-14, 2012 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, was performed using blood cells from local travelers infected with dengue virus.

The global incidence of dengue has grown dramatically in recent decades, putting about half of the world's population at risk. Creation of a vaccine is complicated by the fact that there are four distinct, but closely related forms of the virus that cause dengue. Once people have recovered from infection with one form of the virus, they have lifelong immunity against that form.

But if they become infected with one of the other three forms of the virus, they increase their chances of developing the severe bleeding and sometimes fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The leading theory to explain why some people develop dengue hemorrhagic fever is that under some conditions the human immune response can actually enhance the virus and disease during a second infection.

"This is a huge issue for vaccine development," said lead study author Ruklanthi de Alwis, a graduate student in de Silva's lab. "We have to figure out a way to develop dengue vaccines that induce the good response that protects against infection, at the same time avoiding the bad response that enhances disease."

de Alwis looked at a particular subset of the immune response – specialized molecules called antibodies. UNC investigators identified 7 local individuals who had contracted dengue during travel to an endemic region and sent blood cells from these individuals to Vanderbilt School of Medicine. Drs. Scott Smith and James Crowe at Vanderbilt were able to isolate dengue antibodies from these cells for further study at UNC. The team found that instead of binding to small fragments of the virus -- like mouse antibodies do -- human antibodies that neutralized the virus bound to a complex structure that was only present on a completely assembled dengue virus.

"Though this is the first time this phenomenon has been shown with dengue, just last year there were a number of studies showing that antibodies recognize similar complex epitopes in both HIV and West Nile Virus," said de Alwis. "New vaccines as well as those already in the pipeline will need to be assessed to see if they bind just a small fragment or the whole virus, which may determine whether or not they work in humans."

The research was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Southeastern Regional Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infections and a Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative Targeted Research Grant.

Study co-authors from UNC were Nicholas P. Olivarez; William B. Messer; Jeremy P. Huynh; M. P. B. Wahala; and Ralph S. Baric

Les Lang | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.unc.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New yeast species discovered in Braunschweig, Germany
13.12.2019 | Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH

nachricht Saliva test shows promise for earlier and easier detection of mouth and throat cancer
13.12.2019 | Elsevier

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Virus multiplication in 3D

Vaccinia viruses serve as a vaccine against human smallpox and as the basis of new cancer therapies. Two studies now provide fascinating insights into their unusual propagation strategy at the atomic level.

For viruses to multiply, they usually need the support of the cells they infect. In many cases, only in their host’s nucleus can they find the machines,...

Im Focus: Cheers! Maxwell's electromagnetism extended to smaller scales

More than one hundred and fifty years have passed since the publication of James Clerk Maxwell's "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" (1865). What would our lives be without this publication?

It is difficult to imagine, as this treatise revolutionized our fundamental understanding of electric fields, magnetic fields, and light. The twenty original...

Im Focus: Highly charged ion paves the way towards new physics

In a joint experimental and theoretical work performed at the Heidelberg Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, an international team of physicists detected for the first time an orbital crossing in the highly charged ion Pr⁹⁺. Optical spectra were recorded employing an electron beam ion trap and analysed with the aid of atomic structure calculations. A proposed nHz-wide transition has been identified and its energy was determined with high precision. Theory predicts a very high sensitivity to new physics and extremely low susceptibility to external perturbations for this “clock line” making it a unique candidate for proposed precision studies.

Laser spectroscopy of neutral atoms and singly charged ions has reached astonishing precision by merit of a chain of technological advances during the past...

Im Focus: Ultrafast stimulated emission microscopy of single nanocrystals in Science

The ability to investigate the dynamics of single particle at the nano-scale and femtosecond level remained an unfathomed dream for years. It was not until the dawn of the 21st century that nanotechnology and femtoscience gradually merged together and the first ultrafast microscopy of individual quantum dots (QDs) and molecules was accomplished.

Ultrafast microscopy studies entirely rely on detecting nanoparticles or single molecules with luminescence techniques, which require efficient emitters to...

Im Focus: How to induce magnetism in graphene

Graphene, a two-dimensional structure made of carbon, is a material with excellent mechanical, electronic and optical properties. However, it did not seem suitable for magnetic applications. Together with international partners, Empa researchers have now succeeded in synthesizing a unique nanographene predicted in the 1970s, which conclusively demonstrates that carbon in very specific forms has magnetic properties that could permit future spintronic applications. The results have just been published in the renowned journal Nature Nanotechnology.

Depending on the shape and orientation of their edges, graphene nanostructures (also known as nanographenes) can have very different properties – for example,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

The Future of Work

03.12.2019 | Event News

First International Conference on Agrophotovoltaics in August 2020

15.11.2019 | Event News

Laser Symposium on Electromobility in Aachen: trends for the mobility revolution

15.11.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Supporting structures of wind turbines contribute to wind farm blockage effect

13.12.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Chinese team makes nanoscopy breakthrough

13.12.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Tiny quantum sensors watch materials transform under pressure

13.12.2019 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>