Neuropathic pain is the result of damage to nerve fibers caused by injuries or diseases, such as diabetes and cancer. These damaged nerve fibers continue to send signals to pain centers in the brain even after the surrounding tissue has healed. Unfortunately, neuropathic pain often responds poorly to standard pain treatments and occasionally may get worse instead of better over time. For some people, it leads to serious, long-term disability and dependence on pain medications that have a variety of unwanted side effects, including addiction.
The Pitt research team, led by Joseph Glorioso, III, Ph.D., chair of the department of biochemistry and molecular genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, used a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV) to deliver the gene for part of the human glycine receptor (GlyR), a receptor found primarily on the surface of nerve cells in the spinal cord and the lower brain but not in the nerves in the limbs, to the paws of rats. A group of control rats received only the HSV vector without the inserted gene. After the delivery of the therapeutic gene or empty vector (for the control group), the researchers injected the same paws of each rat with formalin, an irritant known to simulate the symptoms of a peripheral neuropathic pain at the site of injection. Following formalin injection, the rats were then given an injection of glycine to activate the GlyR receptor.
Both control and GlyR-HSV-infected rats showed a typical pain response to formalin. However, the application of glycine eliminated the pain response in GlyR-HSV infected animals, while it had no effect on animals infected with vector only. This alleviation of the pain response in GlyR-HSV-treated mice was reversed by the subsequent addition of low concentrations of strychnine, a strong GlyR-specific inhibitor, or antagonist.
According to Dr. Glorioso, these findings suggest that HSV-directed expression of GlyR in peripheral neurons and subsequent selective activation by glycine has the potential to be used therapeutically not only for neuropathic pain management but a variety of pain syndromes.
"The inability to effectively manage neuropathic pain associated with injuries and illnesses is a growing national and international problem. Gene therapy offers a more targeted, less toxic approach for effectively managing this condition. It also is our hope that targeted transgene delivery of GlyR may have even broader implications for managing a number of chronic pain syndromes, including pain resulting from shingles, arthritis and cancer," explained Dr. Glorioso.
First study on physical properties of giant cancer cells may inform new treatments
14.08.2018 | Brown University
Tiny Helpers that Clean Cells
14.08.2018 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur
What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...
The quality of materials often depends on the manufacturing process. In casting and welding, for example, the rate at which melts solidify and the resulting microstructure of the alloy is important. With metallic foams as well, it depends on exactly how the foaming process takes place. To understand these processes fully requires fast sensing capability. The fastest 3D tomographic images to date have now been achieved at the BESSY II X-ray source operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.
Dr. Francisco Garcia-Moreno and his team have designed a turntable that rotates ultra-stably about its axis at a constant rotational speed. This really depends...
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
25.07.2018 | Event News
14.08.2018 | Life Sciences
14.08.2018 | Life Sciences
14.08.2018 | Earth Sciences