An important aspect of human vision is the ability to attend to objects or events appearing in our peripheral vision without shifting our gaze. This way of effectively looking out of the corner of the minds eye is thought to be particularly important for alerting us to danger. Researchers have made the seemingly paradoxical discovery that even though eye movement itself is actually dispensable for such an attention shift, eye muscle function is nevertheless required for this ability to reflexively redirect ones attention. The new finding tests an important theory about brain function, and represents a remarkable example of the brains complex relationship with movement.
The ability to attend to objects or events that are not at the current centre of gaze (e.g., rapid movements which might signal danger) is referred to as the covert orienting of attention. This mechanism can be contrasted with the overt orienting of attention which typically involves the execution of an eye movement (saccade) intended to bring the object of interest into central vision.
In their new work, researchers Daniel Smith, Chris Rorden and Stephen Jackson of the University of Nottingham, UK, address an important question concerning the precise relationship between eye movements and the covert orienting of attention. While some have argued that covert orienting of attention and eye movements are independent of one another, other researchers have supported the so-called "premotor theory" of attention, which holds that covert attention is mediated by the same system that controls saccadic eye movements, and that a covert shift of attention is simply an unexecuted eye movement.
Heidi Hardman | EurekAlert!
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Researchers from the Department of Atomically Resolved Dynamics of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg, the University of Hamburg and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) outstation in the city have developed a new method to watch biomolecules at work. This method dramatically simplifies starting enzymatic reactions by mixing a cocktail of small amounts of liquids with protein crystals. Determination of the protein structures at different times after mixing can be assembled into a time-lapse sequence that shows the molecular foundations of biology.
The functions of biomolecules are determined by their motions and structural changes. Yet it is a formidable challenge to understand these dynamic motions.
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Researchers from the Department of Atomically Resolved Dynamics of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg, the University of Potsdam (both in Germany) and the University of Toronto (Canada) have pieced together a detailed time-lapse movie revealing all the major steps during the catalytic cycle of an enzyme. Surprisingly, the communication between the protein units is accomplished via a water-network akin to a string telephone. This communication is aligned with a ‘breathing’ motion, that is the expansion and contraction of the protein.
This time-lapse sequence of structures reveals dynamic motions as a fundamental element in the molecular foundations of biology.
19.09.2019 | Event News
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19.09.2019 | Event News