The genetic signal that makes a honeybee male or female has been identified by researchers in Germany, the U.S. and Norway. The finding, published in the August 22 issue of the journal Cell, shows how male bees can have no father, a scientific puzzle going back over 150 years and the explanation for why bees, ants and wasps often form colonial societies. It could also make it easier to breed honeybees.
The researchers found that female bees have two different versions of a gene called csd, one from each parent, that form an active protein that triggers female development. Unfertilized eggs, which have only one copy of csd from the mother, default to being males.
In 1845, a Polish parish priest called Johann Dzierzon proposed that male bees have no fathers: They develop from unfertilized eggs, while females grow from fertilized eggs. Later work showed that Dzierzon was right. Male bees have half as many genes (haploid) as females, which get a set of genes from each parent (diploid). About one-fifth of animal species including all ants, bees and wasps use a similar haplodiploid system of sex determination, but the actual genes and mechanisms involved are not well understood.
Andy Fell | EurekAlert!
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DESY and MPSD scientists create high-order harmonics from solids with controlled polarization states, taking advantage of both crystal symmetry and attosecond electronic dynamics. The newly demonstrated technique might find intriguing applications in petahertz electronics and for spectroscopic studies of novel quantum materials.
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The Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona released its first image of the surface magnetic field of another star. In a paper in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, the PEPSI team presents a Zeeman- Doppler-Image of the surface of the magnetically active star II Pegasi.
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Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have proposed a way to create a completely new source of radiation. Ultra-intense light pulses consist of the motion of a single wave and can be described as a tsunami of light. The strong wave can be used to study interactions between matter and light in a unique way. Their research is now published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
"This source of radiation lets us look at reality through a new angle - it is like twisting a mirror and discovering something completely different," says...
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