Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Plant pest reprogramme the roots

29.09.2015

Microscopic roundworms (nematodes) live like maggots in bacon: They penetrate into the roots of beets, potatoes or soybeans and feed on plant cells, which are full of energy. But how they do it precisely was previously unknown. Scientists at the University of Bonn together with an international team discovered that nematodes produce a plant hormone to stimulate the growth of specific feeding cells in the roots. These cells provide the parasite with all that it needs. The results are now published in the journal "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America" (PNAS).

The beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) is a pipsqueak of less than a millimetre in length, but it causes huge yield losses in sugar beet. Not only are infected beets smaller than normal, but also they have an increasing number of lateral roots and experience a drastic decrease in sugar yield.


The beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) sucks at a plant root. The pest reprogrammes the root with a plant hormone.

(c) Photo: Zoran Radakovic

This makes the pest a talking point as a cause of the dreaded “beet fatigue”, especially in traditional sugar beet growing such as Bonn. To date, however, it was not clear how the nematodes stimulate the development of a nurse cell system inside the root, which they absolutely need as a food source.

It arises from the fact that cells divide increasingly, merge with each other and eventually swell. "For a long time it was speculated that plant hormones play a role in the formation of a nurse cell system in roots," says Prof. Dr. Florian Grundler from the Molecular Phytomedicine, University of Bonn. Since the nematodes lose their ability to move after penetrating into the roots, they are particularly dependent on the development of tumorous nurse cell system.

Pest uses degradation products of its metabolism

Together with scientists from Columbia (USA), Olomouc (Czech Republic), Warsaw (Poland), Osaka (Japan) and the Freie Universitaet Berlin, the researchers at the University of Bonn have used Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant to discover that the beet cyst nematode itself produces the plant hormone cytokinin.

“The nematode has been able to employ a breakdown product of its own metabolism as a plant hormone to control the development of plant cells,” said lead author and research group leader Dr Shahid Siddique. The pest programmed the plant roots in beets to form a special nutritive tissue, which the nematode uses for its own growth.

The research team initially did not know whether the pest uses the hormone plants produce or whether it produces and releases the hormone itself. The scientists blocked cytokinin production in the plant - the nematode nevertheless continued to grow because it was not dependent on the plant-produced hormone.

Only when the agricultural experts blocked a special receptor at the docks to override the worm-produced hormone did they starve the pest, discovering that the hormone is important for the formation of the nurse cell system. “In this case, Heterodera schachtii cannot use its ability to produce cytokinin anymore, because a vital pathway was interrupted in the root cells,” explained Dr Siddique.

New options for plant breeding

Although this discovery is a result of basic research, it opens up new avenues in plant breeding. “On the one hand the result is an important contribution to the fundamental understanding of parasitism in plants, and on the other hand it can help to reduce the problem of cyst nematode in important agricultural crops,” said Prof Grundler. Now that an important mechanism had been found by the research, we are looking for an appropriate strategy to use these results specifically in resistance breeding.

Publication: A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1503657112

Contact for the media:

Prof. Dr. Florian Grundler
Molekulare Phytomedizin
Universität Bonn
Tel. ++49-(0)228-731675
E-mail: grundler@uni-bonn.de

Johannes Seiler | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Further information:
http://www.uni-bonn.de

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New yeast species discovered in Braunschweig, Germany
13.12.2019 | Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH

nachricht Saliva test shows promise for earlier and easier detection of mouth and throat cancer
13.12.2019 | Elsevier

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Virus multiplication in 3D

Vaccinia viruses serve as a vaccine against human smallpox and as the basis of new cancer therapies. Two studies now provide fascinating insights into their unusual propagation strategy at the atomic level.

For viruses to multiply, they usually need the support of the cells they infect. In many cases, only in their host’s nucleus can they find the machines,...

Im Focus: Cheers! Maxwell's electromagnetism extended to smaller scales

More than one hundred and fifty years have passed since the publication of James Clerk Maxwell's "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" (1865). What would our lives be without this publication?

It is difficult to imagine, as this treatise revolutionized our fundamental understanding of electric fields, magnetic fields, and light. The twenty original...

Im Focus: Highly charged ion paves the way towards new physics

In a joint experimental and theoretical work performed at the Heidelberg Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, an international team of physicists detected for the first time an orbital crossing in the highly charged ion Pr⁹⁺. Optical spectra were recorded employing an electron beam ion trap and analysed with the aid of atomic structure calculations. A proposed nHz-wide transition has been identified and its energy was determined with high precision. Theory predicts a very high sensitivity to new physics and extremely low susceptibility to external perturbations for this “clock line” making it a unique candidate for proposed precision studies.

Laser spectroscopy of neutral atoms and singly charged ions has reached astonishing precision by merit of a chain of technological advances during the past...

Im Focus: Ultrafast stimulated emission microscopy of single nanocrystals in Science

The ability to investigate the dynamics of single particle at the nano-scale and femtosecond level remained an unfathomed dream for years. It was not until the dawn of the 21st century that nanotechnology and femtoscience gradually merged together and the first ultrafast microscopy of individual quantum dots (QDs) and molecules was accomplished.

Ultrafast microscopy studies entirely rely on detecting nanoparticles or single molecules with luminescence techniques, which require efficient emitters to...

Im Focus: How to induce magnetism in graphene

Graphene, a two-dimensional structure made of carbon, is a material with excellent mechanical, electronic and optical properties. However, it did not seem suitable for magnetic applications. Together with international partners, Empa researchers have now succeeded in synthesizing a unique nanographene predicted in the 1970s, which conclusively demonstrates that carbon in very specific forms has magnetic properties that could permit future spintronic applications. The results have just been published in the renowned journal Nature Nanotechnology.

Depending on the shape and orientation of their edges, graphene nanostructures (also known as nanographenes) can have very different properties – for example,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

The Future of Work

03.12.2019 | Event News

First International Conference on Agrophotovoltaics in August 2020

15.11.2019 | Event News

Laser Symposium on Electromobility in Aachen: trends for the mobility revolution

15.11.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Supporting structures of wind turbines contribute to wind farm blockage effect

13.12.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Chinese team makes nanoscopy breakthrough

13.12.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Tiny quantum sensors watch materials transform under pressure

13.12.2019 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>