Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Plant cells survive but stop dividing upon DNA damage

09.10.2017

NAIST researchers show the molecular pathway through which plants cease cell division upon DNA damage

The cell cycle is the system through which a cell grows and divides. It is also how a cell passes its DNA to its progeny and is why the cell cycle ceases if the DNA is damaged, as otherwise it risks passing this damage to daughter cells.


Green spots indicate a transcription factor that accumulates and inhibits cell division upon DNA damage. Researchers found an indispensable role of the transcription factor in arresting plant growth under stressful conditions.

Credit: Masaaki Umeda

Scientists at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) have reported a new molecular mechanism that explains how this cessation occurs. The study, which can be read in Nature Communications, shows the transcription factor family MYB3R prevents progression to the division stage (M phase) of the cell cycle in Arabidopsis, a small flowering plant that is a member of the mustard family.

"Inhibition of cell division in response to DNA damage enables cells to maintain genome integrity. The inhibition is regulated by different molecules in animals and plants," explains NAIST Professor Masaaki Umeda, who studies the role of stem cells in plant growth.

MYB3R can be divided into groups of transcription activators (Act-MYB) and transcription repressors (Rep-MYB). Plants grow through their root tip and shoot apex, but not upon DNA damage. In the study, Prof. Umeda and his colleagues found termination of the growth was accompanied by an accumulation of Rep-MYB proteins in these regions and that absent this accumulation, the plants would show signs of growing leaves and flowers.

To understand how this accumulation occurs in response to DNA damage, the scientists considered the role of CDK, or cyclin-dependent kinases. CDKs are crucial for the regulation of the cell cycle. DNA damage suppresses CDK activity, which prevents progression to M phase.

Prof. Umeda found that inhibiting CDKs even with the absence of DNA damage would cause the Rep-MYB3R accumulation seen with DNA damage and stall the cell cycle before the M phase transition. "We found that CDK activity is required for Rep-MYB degradation under normal conditions. The degradation is suppressed due to DNA damage," he said.

The study further found that the accumulated Rep-MYB proteins target genes responsible for transitioning the cell to M phase. "Rep-MYB has a number of G2/M-specific target genes. We found that they stop plant growth by targeting only a specific set of these genes," notes Prof. Umeda.

Why only a specific set and not all its target genes is unclear, though Prof. Umeda suggests that this finding could be evidence that a cofactor that interacts with Rep-MYB may determine the selectivity. Prof. Umeda says that the study provides a new paradigm for how plant cell division ceases upon DNA damage, thus preventing damaged cells from accumulating under stressful conditions.

"Without DNA damage, CDK prevents Rep-MYB from activating, which allows the cell cycle to progress to cell division. DNA damage inhibits CDK activity, freeing Rep-MYB and stopping the cell division," he says.

###

[Resource]

Title: Arabidopsis R1R2R3-Myb proteins are essential for inhibiting cell division in response to DNA damage


Authors: Poyu Chen, Hirotomo Takatsuka, Naoki Takahashi, Rie Kurata, Yoichiro Fukao, Kosuke Kobayashi, Masaki Ito & Masaaki Umeda*


Publication: Nature Communications. 8:635, 21 September 2017.


DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-00676-4


*Author for correspondence

Information about Prof. Umeda lab can be found at this website; http://bsw3.naist.jp/eng/courses/courses105.html

About NAIST

NAIST was founded in 1991 as a Japanese national university consisting solely of graduate schools in three integrated areas: information science, biological sciences, and materials science. In the early 2018, NAIST will transform its current structure into the one graduate school system to further promote the mission of cultivating global leaders in science and technology who will actively respond to social demands. At present, about 1,000 students -22% from overseas- are supervised by roughly 200 NAIST faculty. With its cutting-edge facilities and a 5 to 1 student-to-faculty ratio, NAIST's world-leading research and education are a direct result of its rich, global environment and supportive infrastructure. NAIST has quickly established itself as a world-class research and education center where young scientists and technologists become tomorrow's global leaders. For more detail please visit: http://www.naist.jp/en/

Michiko Muraki | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: DNA DNA damage NAIST Nature Communications cell cycle cell division genes proteins

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How molecules teeter in a laser field
18.01.2019 | Forschungsverbund Berlin

nachricht Discovery of enhanced bone growth could lead to new treatments for osteoporosis
18.01.2019 | University of California - Los Angeles

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Ten-year anniversary of the Neumayer Station III

The scientific and political community alike stress the importance of German Antarctic research

Joint Press Release from the BMBF and AWI

The Antarctic is a frigid continent south of the Antarctic Circle, where researchers are the only inhabitants. Despite the hostile conditions, here the Alfred...

Im Focus: Ultra ultrasound to transform new tech

World first experiments on sensor that may revolutionise everything from medical devices to unmanned vehicles

The new sensor - capable of detecting vibrations of living cells - may revolutionise everything from medical devices to unmanned vehicles.

Im Focus: Flying Optical Cats for Quantum Communication

Dead and alive at the same time? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have implemented Erwin Schrödinger’s paradoxical gedanken experiment employing an entangled atom-light state.

In 1935 Erwin Schrödinger formulated a thought experiment designed to capture the paradoxical nature of quantum physics. The crucial element of this gedanken...

Im Focus: Nanocellulose for novel implants: Ears from the 3D-printer

Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing.

It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains:

Im Focus: Elucidating the Atomic Mechanism of Superlubricity

The phenomenon of so-called superlubricity is known, but so far the explanation at the atomic level has been missing: for example, how does extremely low friction occur in bearings? Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institutes IWM and IWS jointly deciphered a universal mechanism of superlubricity for certain diamond-like carbon layers in combination with organic lubricants. Based on this knowledge, it is now possible to formulate design rules for supra lubricating layer-lubricant combinations. The results are presented in an article in Nature Communications, volume 10.

One of the most important prerequisites for sustainable and environmentally friendly mobility is minimizing friction. Research and industry have been dedicated...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Our digital society in 2040

16.01.2019 | Event News

11th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Aachen, 3-4 April 2019

14.01.2019 | Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Additive manufacturing reflects fundamental metallurgical principles to create materials

18.01.2019 | Materials Sciences

How molecules teeter in a laser field

18.01.2019 | Life Sciences

The cytoskeleton of neurons has been found to be involved in Alzheimer's disease

18.01.2019 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>