Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Drug reverses abnormal brain function in rett syndrome mice

04.10.2012
New brain mapping shows similarities to autism

A promising study out today in the prestigious Journal of Neurosciences showed that in a mouse model of Rett syndrome, researchers were able to reverse abnormalities in brain activity and improve neurological function by treating the animals with an FDA-approved anesthesia drug, ketamine. Rett syndrome is among the most severe autism-related disorders, affecting about one in 10,000 female births per year, with no effective treatments available.

"These studies provide new evidence that drug treatment can reverse abnormalities in brain function in Rett syndrome mice," says David Katz, PhD, professor of neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and senior author of the study. "They also provide new leads as to what kinds of drugs might be effective in individuals with Rett syndrome."

Neuroscientists at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine were able to successfully map differences in the brain activity of normal mice and those with a genetic mutation that mirrors the cause of Rett syndrome in humans. They found that – compared to normal mice – Rett syndrome mice showed regions of abnormally low activity in the front of the brain (forebrain) and regions of abnormally high activity in the back of the brain (brainstem). Importantly, they found that the regions of low activity overlap with regions of the brain that are also under-active in humans with classic autism. This indicates there may be common mechanisms underlying abnormal behaviors in the two diseases.

The identification of these brain regions provided clues into specific areas to target for treatment. Based on previously published findings that ketamine activated neurons in the forebrain, the researchers gave the drug to the Rett syndrome mice and found it increased levels of brain activity in those regions and improved neurological function. Importantly, the drug was effective at a low dose that did not produce anesthesia.

Katz strongly cautioned that, because ketamine can have potent anesthetic effects and is a controlled substance, further work is needed to establish the safety of ketamine in patients with Rett syndrome. Moreover, ketamine has never been used to treat a chronic condition, and additional studies are required to determine whether or not this is feasible and safe. However, safer drugs acting in the same pathways as ketamine may be available.

Unlike most disorders on the autism spectrum, researchers know the cause of Rett syndrome – a genetic change on the X chromosome, which helps explain why it affects girls almost exclusively. Families don't usually know if a newborn has Rett syndrome because affected children can appear normal for the first six to 18 months after birth. Then, parents start to notice the infant losing the ability to speak, move, eat or even breathe normally. Many girls with Rett syndrome can live into adulthood and are so disabled that they require round-the-clock care.

One in 88 Americans is affected by an autism-related disorder, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Those affected by Rett syndrome can lose – to varying degrees – the ability for normal human interaction. They can be socially withdrawn, struggle to communicate and tend to engage in repetitive behaviors – all hallmarks of disorders that fall within the autism spectrum.

Katz's team in the School of Medicine included post-doctoral fellows Miriam Kron, PhD and Michael Ogier, PhD, research assistants C. James Howell and Ian Adams and undergraduate students Michael Ransbottom and Diana Christian. Kron and Howell are the lead authors on the Journal of Neuroscience paper.

The findings were supported by grants from the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health (NS-057398), the International Rett Syndrome Foundation and the first ever grant awarded in Northeast Ohio by Autism Speaks, the world's leading autism science and advocacy organization.

About Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Founded in 1843, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine is the largest medical research institution in Ohio and is among the nation's top medical schools for research funding from the National Institutes of Health. The School of Medicine is recognized throughout the international medical community for outstanding achievements in teaching. The School's innovative and pioneering Western Reserve2 curriculum interweaves four themes--research and scholarship, clinical mastery, leadership, and civic professionalism--to prepare students for the practice of evidence-based medicine in the rapidly changing health care environment of the 21st century. Nine Nobel Laureates have been affiliated with the school of medicine.

Annually, the School of Medicine trains more than 800 MD and MD/PhD students and ranks in the top 25 among U.S. research-oriented medical schools as designated by U.S. News & World Report "Guide to Graduate Education."

The School of Medicine's primary affiliate is University Hospitals Case Medical Center and is additionally affiliated with MetroHealth Medical Center, the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the Cleveland Clinic, with which it established the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University in 2002. http://casemed.case.edu

Jessica Studeny | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.case.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View
22.06.2018 | University of Sussex

nachricht New cellular pathway helps explain how inflammation leads to artery disease
22.06.2018 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Graphene assembled film shows higher thermal conductivity than graphite film

22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Fast rising bedrock below West Antarctica reveals an extremely fluid Earth mantle

22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View

22.06.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>