These brain regions belong to a network that is more active when the brain is at rest. The discovery that cells in these regions communicate with each other more often than cells in other parts of the brain may help explain why these areas are frequently among the first to develop plaques, according to the researchers.
Working with mice genetically engineered to develop Alzheimer’s type-brain changes, scientists reduced the size and number of plaques by decreasing brain cell activity in certain regions.
The results, appearing May 1 in Nature Neuroscience, are the latest to hint at a resolution to lines of evidence that have suggested busier brain cells can both contribute to and prevent Alzheimer’s. According to a new theory, which brain cells are kept busy may make all the difference.
“Engaging the brain in tasks like reading, socializing or studying may be helpful because they reduce activity in susceptible regions and increase activity in regions that seem to be less vulnerable to Alzheimer’s plaque deposition,” says David M. Holtzman, MD, the Andrew B. and Gretchen P. Jones Professor and head of the Department of Neurology. “I suspect that sleep deprivation and increased stress, which may affect Alzheimer’s risk, may also increase activity levels in these vulnerable regions.”
The susceptible regions of the brain highlighted in the new study belong to the default mode network, a group of brain regions that become more active when the brain is not engaged in a cognitively demanding task. Co-author Marcus Raichle, MD, professor of neurology, of radiology and of neurobiology, was among the first to describe the default mode network.
In a paper published in 2005, Washington University researchers showed that regions in the default mode network are often among the first to develop Alzheimer’s plaques. To understand why, Adam Bero, a graduate student in Holtzman’s lab, analyzed the brain chemistry of mice. He found that the mouse brain regions analogous to those in the human default mode network had similarly high levels of early amyloid plaque deposits when compared to other areas.
Next, Bero showed in younger mice that the high-plaque regions had increased amyloid beta levels. In a third experiment, he found that the greater amyloid beta levels were caused by increased nerve cell communication in the affected regions.
To further prove the relationship between plaque formation and cell communication, scientists trimmed the whiskers on one side of a group of mice and kept them short for one month.
“Because mice are nocturnal and their eyesight is poor, whiskers are an important way for them to sense where they are in their environment,” Holtzman explains. “By cutting the whiskers back on one side, we reduced neuronal activity in the region of the brain that senses whisker movement.”
Loss of this input resulted in smaller and less numerous plaques on the side of the brain connected to the pruned whiskers. In a separate experiment, when researchers regularly stimulated whiskers with a cotton swab, amyloid beta levels increased.
According to Holtzman, the results demonstrate the direct connection between amyloid plaque formation and growth and changes in brain cell activity levels in various parts of the brain. He plans further investigations of the mechanisms that regulate default brain activity, their connections to phenomena such as sleep, and their potential effects on Alzheimer’s disease.
Michael C. Purdy | EurekAlert!
Seeing on the Quick: New Insights into Active Vision in the Brain
15.08.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen
New Approach to Treating Chronic Itch
15.08.2018 | Universität Zürich
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur
What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
25.07.2018 | Event News
15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
15.08.2018 | Earth Sciences
15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy