Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Tiny invasive snail impacts Great Lakes, alters ecology

12.08.2008
Long a problem in the western U.S., the New Zealand mud snail currently inhabits four of the five Great Lakes and is spreading into rivers and tributaries, according to a Penn State team of researchers. These tiny creatures out-compete native snails and insects, but are not good fish food replacements for the native species.

"These snails have an operculum, a door that closes the shell," says Edward P. Levri, associate professor of biology at Penn State's Altoona Campus. "They can be out of the water for longer than other snails and when fed to fish, they are not digested and sometimes come out alive. This has a potential to alter the salmon and trout fisheries because they alter the food chain."

The New Zealand mud snail grows to a maximum of a quarter of an inch and is more normally a sixteenth to an eighth of an inch in length. The hard shell is capable of sealing off the soft animal from outside influences. In New Zealand, the snails reproduce asexually, resulting in identical clones, or sexually. However, in invaded areas, asexual cloning is the only mode of reproduction.

This mud snail spread to England as early as 1850 and Europe in the late 1800s. It is found in Japan, but when the snail arrived there is unknown. The first mud snail found in the U.S. was in 1987 in the Snake River, Idaho, but the species did not appear in the east until 1991 in Lake Ontario. The western and eastern U.S. populations are separate episodes of introduction, because they represent different clones; in each case, only one snail needed to be introduced to begin the invasion. The snails in the Great Lakes region appear to be the same as one clone found in Europe.

"In the western U.S., this species is of special concern largely because of their ability to modify ecosystems," Levri told attendees today (Aug. 8) at the Ecological Society of America's annual meeting in Milwaukee.

The snails in western streams alter the nitrogen and carbon cycling. They are primarily grazers and detritus eaters with very wide food preferences. In some places in streams in Yellowstone National Park, they reach population densities of 323 individuals per square inch. Levri, working with undergraduates Warren J. Jacoby, Shane J. Lunen, Ashley A. Kelly and Thomas A. Ladson, found that densities in the Great Lakes are not anywhere near that in the West.

"In our most recent survey, we were lucky if we found a few hundred per square meter," says Levri. "In Lake Erie they are not very abundant, but it is unclear what they are doing 100 feet below the surface."

In New Zealand, the mud snails are not a problem because of native trematodes -- flukes -- that infect the snails and controls their population and reproduction. Some people have suggested that those who want to control the snail introduce this trematode to the U.S. to control the snails.

"There are two problems with introducing these trematodes," says Levri. "The first is that any introduction of a nonnative species can cause worse problems than they were expected to cure. The second is that these flukes have a multiple-host life cycle, infecting ducks that are apparently not affected before infecting the snails. This might work in the west where the snails are in shallow water, but no duck is going to dive 100 feet to get snails."

Levri and his team found that in Lake Ontario, the densities of the snails peak between 50 and 82 feet and they were rarely found in water less than 16 feet.

"What we can do is limit their expansion," says Levri. "That means that recreational water users must be very careful moving from one place to another. We advise anglers to freeze waders and fishing gear, or use Formula 409 or something like that to kill the snails."

He notes that signs are beginning to mark areas in New York where the snail is found to warn people to clean their gear.

The Penn State researcher warns that the snails are difficult to control, noting "I have frozen them for 12 hours at a time and about 50 percent of them survive."

Andrea Elyse Messer | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.psu.edu

Further reports about: carbon cycling ecosystem native snails native species trematodes

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Project provides information on energy recovery from agricultural residues in Germany and China
13.02.2020 | Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum

nachricht New exhaust gas measurement registers ultrafine pollutant particles for the first time
21.01.2020 | Technische Universität Graz

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Freiburg researcher investigate the origins of surface texture

Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.

Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...

Im Focus: Skyrmions like it hot: Spin structures are controllable even at high temperatures

Investigation of the temperature dependence of the skyrmion Hall effect reveals further insights into possible new data storage devices

The joint research project of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that had previously demonstrated...

Im Focus: Making the internet more energy efficient through systemic optimization

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive. The project has yielded several scientific articles, in publications including Nature Communications.

Streaming films and music, scrolling through social media, and using cloud-based storage services are everyday activities now.

Im Focus: New synthesis methods enhance 3D chemical space for drug discovery

After helping develop a new approach for organic synthesis -- carbon-hydrogen functionalization -- scientists at Emory University are now showing how this approach may apply to drug discovery. Nature Catalysis published their most recent work -- a streamlined process for making a three-dimensional scaffold of keen interest to the pharmaceutical industry.

"Our tools open up whole new chemical space for potential drug targets," says Huw Davies, Emory professor of organic chemistry and senior author of the paper.

Im Focus: Quantum fluctuations sustain the record superconductor

Superconductivity approaching room temperature may be possible in hydrogen-rich compounds at much lower pressures than previously expected

Reaching room-temperature superconductivity is one of the biggest dreams in physics. Its discovery would bring a technological revolution by providing...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

70th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Around 70 Laureates set to meet with young scientists from approx. 100 countries

12.02.2020 | Event News

11th Advanced Battery Power Conference, March 24-25, 2020 in Münster/Germany

16.01.2020 | Event News

Laser Colloquium Hydrogen LKH2: fast and reliable fuel cell manufacturing

15.01.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Gold nanoclusters: new frontier for developing medication for treatment of Alzheimer's disease

17.02.2020 | Life Sciences

Artificial intelligence is becoming sustainable!

17.02.2020 | Information Technology

Catalyst deposition on fragile chips

17.02.2020 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>