The compilation of maximum and minimum temperature series of every month since the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 21st century has not always been an easy task. The data, which have been collected in 45 Spanish observatories, were not “homogeneous” in every case. In climatology, a series of data (temporary series) is considered as homogeneous when its content reflects exclusively the climatic evolution (this is, when the different indexed factors are absent). Therefore, the researchers’ work has mainly consisted in removing inhomogeneous “pollution” in data.
According to the scientist, analysing the quality of the data –which were published in November in the International Journal of Climatology- becomes, the “best method to believe in the final results”. “Technical preparation is essential to take the second step and do research into the rise of temperature at an unquestionable statistical level”, he added.Data homogeneization
Moving a thermometer without recording this fact gives rise to a very strange result which can not be explained 50 years later”, explained Staudt. Besides this, there are human typographical errors which present “non-homogeneous” data.
Scientists have been working for five years to find out, evaluate and repair the data series. “In order to make them as reliable as possible without converting them into a pretext for those reluctant to admit the existence of the Climatic Change”, explained the researcher. Although he admits that he has not obtained absolute conclusions, he has managed to establish a “normality” criterion in the behaviour of temperatures. “With a high level of probability, a qualitative decrease of seven degrees from April to May is not normal, as there should be a rise in any case”, he said.
Due to the homogeneization problems specified in the analysed monthly series, the researchers have set themselves a very strict “detection of un-homogeneities” criterion. Despite this, the instrumental error in a temperature measurement is in the order of 0.1ºC, and the error of a difference between data, previously treated with the homogeneization method, rises to the order of 0.4ºC. This error is not negligible but anyway it is “considerably smaller than the gross data”.
To come to conclusions that confirm climatic change in Spain, at a high level of reliability, this technical work involves a “necessary and obvious effort”. Staudt said that “the results obtained about the Climatic Change are not new, but they will confirm what we (almost) already knew”.
Antonio Marín Ruiz | alfa
Treatment of saline wastewater during algae utilization
14.05.2019 | Jacobs University Bremen gGmbH
Plastic gets a do-over: Breakthrough discovery recycles plastic from the inside out
07.05.2019 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Researchers from Sweden's Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg present a new method which can double the energy of a proton beam produced by laser-based particle accelerators. The breakthrough could lead to more compact, cheaper equipment that could be useful for many applications, including proton therapy.
Proton therapy involves firing a beam of accelerated protons at cancerous tumours, killing them through irradiation. But the equipment needed is so large and...
A new assessment of NASA's record of global temperatures revealed that the agency's estimate of Earth's long-term temperature rise in recent decades is accurate to within less than a tenth of a degree Fahrenheit, providing confidence that past and future research is correctly capturing rising surface temperatures.
The most complete assessment ever of statistical uncertainty within the GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) data product shows that the annual values...
Physicists at the University of Basel are able to show for the first time how a single electron looks in an artificial atom. A newly developed method enables them to show the probability of an electron being present in a space. This allows improved control of electron spins, which could serve as the smallest information unit in a future quantum computer. The experiments were published in Physical Review Letters and the related theory in Physical Review B.
The spin of an electron is a promising candidate for use as the smallest information unit (qubit) of a quantum computer. Controlling and switching this spin or...
Engineers at the University of Tokyo continually pioneer new ways to improve battery technology. Professor Atsuo Yamada and his team recently developed a...
With a quantum coprocessor in the cloud, physicists from Innsbruck, Austria, open the door to the simulation of previously unsolvable problems in chemistry, materials research or high-energy physics. The research groups led by Rainer Blatt and Peter Zoller report in the journal Nature how they simulated particle physics phenomena on 20 quantum bits and how the quantum simulator self-verified the result for the first time.
Many scientists are currently working on investigating how quantum advantage can be exploited on hardware already available today. Three years ago, physicists...
29.04.2019 | Event News
17.04.2019 | Event News
15.04.2019 | Event News
27.05.2019 | Information Technology
27.05.2019 | Physics and Astronomy
27.05.2019 | Life Sciences