Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Where has all the antimatter gone? VELO seeks the answer

12.04.2007
Scientists from the Universities of Liverpool and Glasgow have completed work on the inner heart of an experiment which seeks to find out what has happened to all the antimatter created at the start of the Universe. Matter and antimatter were created in equal amounts in the Big Bang but somehow the antimatter disappeared resulting in the Universe, and everything in it, including ourselves, being made of the remaining matter.

The final modules of the VErtex LOcator (VELO), a precision silicon detector, have been delivered to CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva. Once assembled VELO will be installed into the LHCb detector, one of four experiments, which make up the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator, which is due to be switched on in November this year.

LHCb is designed to investigate the subtle differences between matter and antimatter in particles containing b (beauty) quarks. The VELO is an essential part of the experiment which will provide the unprecedented precision necessary to isolate them. The LHC, located in a 27km underground tunnel which straddles France and Switzerland, will help answer some of the fundamental questions about the origins of our Universe and is set to change the future path of particle physics research.

Within the LHC, two beams of protons will be accelerated to close to the speed of light and then collided in one of the four experiments, which will each measure the outfall of particles.

Professor Themis Bowcock, lead scientist from the University of Liverpool LHCb team said, “The VELO gives us the precision we need not only to identify b quarks in a proton-proton collision, but to do so in real time. This allows us to isolate samples of b quarks for analysis in a way that would be impossible otherwise. It is the key to LHCb’s physics aims.”

The VELO is unique in its design with the whole device (about a metre long) consisting of 42 silicon "modules", spread along both sides of the proton beam (21 each side). The VELO actually sits inside a vacuum vessel - with a thin sheet of aluminium, know as RF foil, separating it from the primary vacuum inhabited by the proton beams. The two halves of modules are mechanically moved in to within 7mm of the beam during data-taking, and out to a safe distance afterwards.

Dr Tara Shears, LHCb scientist from the University of Liverpool explains, “To achieve optimal precision the silicon detectors need to be as close as possible to the beam. When operational 40 million proton proton interactions will occur per second inside LHCb and it is no mean feat that measurements of these collisions will take place in real time.

Like all the detector experiments at CERN a worldwide team of scientists are involved in the design and construction of LHCb. The experiment involves 663 scientists from 47 institutes and universities in 15 countries. UK collaborators make up around 20% of this. The individual VELO modules, of which there are 42 in total, were designed and assembled at the University of Liverpool in a state of the art clean room.

Transport of the completed VELO modules from the University of Liverpool occurred by less than traditional means. Each module being couriered via an easyJet flight to Geneva! However, with the onset of tighter baggage restrictions some of the modules made the 1,066 km (663 mile) journey in the boot of a car.

Scientists from the University of Glasgow are responsible for the reception and testing of the modules at CERN. Dr Chris Parkes from University of Glasgow said, “Now that all 42 modules are on site we are busy testing before final installation in the detector, 100 metres underground.

Contacts
Gill Ormrod – Science and Technology Facilities Press Office
Tel: 01793 442012. Email: gill.ormrod@stfc.ac.uk
Kate Spark – University of Liverpool Press Office
Tel: 0151 794 2247
Email: kate.spark@liv.ac.uk
Martin Shannon - University of Glasgow Press Office
Tel: 0141 330 8593
Email: m.shannon@admin.gla.ac.uk
UK Science Contacts
Professor Themis Bowcock – Lead LHCb scientist at the University of Liverpool
Tel: 0151 794 3315
Email: tjvb@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk
Dr Tara Shears – LHCb scientist, University of Liverpool
Tel: 0151 7943315
Email: tara@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk
Dr Chris Parkes – LHCb scientist, University of Glasgow
Tel: 0141 330 5885
Email: parkes@mail.cern.ch

Gill Ormrod | alfa
Further information:
http://www.cern.ch
http://www.lhc.ac.uk
http://hep.ph.liv.ac.uk/~tara/lhcb_outreach/

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Organic light-emitting diodes become brighter and more durable
28.05.2018 | Technische Universität Dresden

nachricht APEX takes a glimpse into the heart of darkness
25.05.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Powerful IT security for the car of the future – research alliance develops new approaches

The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.

Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...

Im Focus: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices

A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.

The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

12th COMPAMED Spring Convention: Innovative manufacturing processes of modern implants

28.05.2018 | Event News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

International Workshop Sees Central Role for Solar in Transforming the World Energy Economy

28.05.2018 | Seminars Workshops

Cognitive Power Electronics 4.0 is gaining momentum

28.05.2018 | Trade Fair News

Organic light-emitting diodes become brighter and more durable

28.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>