Saturn’s auroras are caused by the same phenomenon which leads to dramatic auroral displays on Earth, research shows
Researchers have captured stunning images of Saturn’s auroras as the planet’s magnetic field is battered by charged particles from the Sun. The team’s findings provide a “smoking gun” for the theory that Saturn’s auroral displays are often caused by the dramatic collapse of its “magnetic tail”.
Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have captured new images of the dancing auroral lights at Saturn’s north pole. The ultraviolet images, taken by Hubble’s super-sensitive Advanced Camera for Surveys, capture moments when Saturn’s magnetic field is affected by bursts of particles streaming out from the Sun, providing evidence that the auroral displays are often caused by the dramatic collapse of the planet’s magnetic tail. Credit: NASA/ESA
Just like comets, planets such as Saturn and the Earth have a “tail” – known as the magnetotail – that is made up of electrified gas from the Sun and flows out in the planet’s wake.
When a particularly strong burst of particles from the Sun hits Saturn, it can cause the magnetotail to collapse, with the ensuing disturbance of the planet’s magnetic field resulting in spectacular auroral displays. A very similar process happens here on Earth.
Scientists observed this process happening on Saturn firsthand between April and May of 2013 as part of a three-year-long Hubble observing campaign. Their findings have been accepted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the America Geophysical Union.
The ultraviolet images, taken by Hubble’s super-sensitive Advanced Camera for Surveys, capture moments when Saturn’s magnetic field is affected by bursts of particles streaming out from the Sun.
Due to the composition of Saturn’s atmosphere, its auroras shine brightly in the ultraviolet range of the electromagnetic spectrum. This observation campaign using Hubble meant the astronomers were able to gather an unprecedented record of the planet’s auroral activity.
The team caught Saturn during a very dynamic light show. Some of the bursts of light seen shooting around Saturn’s polar regions travelled at over three times faster than the speed of the gas giant’s rotation.
“These images are spectacular and dynamic, because the auroras are jumping around so quickly,” Jonathan Nichols, a lecturer and research fellow in the University of Leicester’s Department of Physics and Astronomy in the United Kingdom, who led the Hubble observations, said. “The key difference about this work is that it is the first time the Hubble has been able to see the northern auroras so clearly.”
“The particular pattern of auroras that we saw relates to the collapsing of the magnetotail,” he added. “We have always suspected this was what also happens on Saturn. This evidence really strengthens the argument.”
“Our observations show a burst of auroras that are moving very, very quickly across the polar region of the planet. We can see that the magnetotail is undergoing huge turmoil and reconfiguration, caused by buffering from solar wind,” said Nichols, a Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) Advanced Fellow in Planetary Auroras. “It’s the smoking gun that shows us that the tail is collapsing.”
The new images also formed part of a joint observing campaign between Hubble and NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, which is currently in orbit around Saturn itself.
Between them, the two spacecraft managed to capture a 360-degree view of the planet’s aurora at both the north and south poles. Cassini also used optical imaging to delve into the rainbow of colors seen in Saturn’s light shows.
On Earth, observers of auroras see green curtains of light with flaming scarlet tops. Cassini’s imaging cameras reveal similar auroral veils on Saturn, which are red at the bottom and violet at the top.
Notes for Journalists
Journalists and public information officers (PIOs) of educational and scientific institutions who have registered with AGU can download a PDF copy of this accepted article by clicking on this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014GL060186/abstract
Or, you may order a copy of the final paper by emailing your request to Nanci Bompey at firstname.lastname@example.org. Please provide your name, the name of your publication, and your phone number.
Neither the paper nor this press release is under embargo.
“Dynamic auroral storms on Saturn as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope”
J. D. Nichols: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK;
S. V. Badman: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; and Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK;
K. H. Baines: Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA;
R. H. Brown: Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA;
E. J. Bunce: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK;
J. T. Clarke: Center for Space Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA;
S. W. H. Cowley: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK;
F. J. Crary: Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA;
M. K. Dougherty: Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, UK;
J.-C. Gérard: Laboratoire de Physique Atmospherique et Planetaire, B5c, Universite de Liege, Liege, Belgium;
A. Grocott: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; and Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK;
D. Grodent: Laboratoire de Physique Atmospherique et Planetaire, B5c, Universite de Liege, Liege, Belgium;
W. S. Kurth: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA;
H. Melin: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK;
D. G. Mitchell: Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD, USA;
W. R. Pryor: Central Arizona College, Coolidge, AZ, USA;
T. S. Stallard: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
Contact information for the authors:
Jon Nichols: +44 (0)116 252 5049, email@example.com
+1 (202) 777-7524
University of Leicester Contacts:
Ellen Rudge, News and Events Officer
+44 (0)116 229 7467
Peter Thorley, Corporate News Officer
+44 (0)116 252 2415
European Space Agency Contact:
Georgia Bladon, ESA/Hubble Public Information Officer
+44 781 629 1261
Science and Technology Facilities Council Contact:
Corinne Mosese, STFC Press officer
+44 (0)1793 979 724, +44 (0)7557 317 200
Nanci Bompey | American Geophysical Union
Tracking down the 'missing' carbon from the Martian atmosphere
25.11.2015 | California Institute of Technology
Iowa State astronomers say comet fragments best explanation of mysterious dimming star
25.11.2015 | Iowa State University
Planet Earth experienced a global climate shift in the late 1980s on an unprecedented scale, fuelled by anthropogenic warming and a volcanic eruption, according to new research published this week.
Scientists say that a major step change, or ‘regime shift’, in the Earth’s biophysical systems, from the upper atmosphere to the depths of the ocean and from...
The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has installed 70 photovoltaic modules on the outer façade of one of its lab buildings. The modules were...
Nerve cells cover their high energy demand with glucose and lactate. Scientists of the University of Zurich now provide new support for this. They show for the first time in the intact mouse brain evidence for an exchange of lactate between different brain cells. With this study they were able to confirm a 20-year old hypothesis.
In comparison to other organs, the human brain has the highest energy requirements. The supply of energy for nerve cells and the particular role of lactic acid...
In laser material processing, the simulation of processes has made great strides over the past few years. Today, the software can predict relatively well what will happen on the workpiece. Unfortunately, it is also highly complex and requires a lot of computing time. Thanks to clever simplification, experts from Fraunhofer ILT are now able to offer the first-ever simulation software that calculates processes in real time and also runs on tablet computers and smartphones. The fast software enables users to do without expensive experiments and to find optimum process parameters even more effectively.
Before now, the reliable simulation of laser processes was a job for experts. Armed with sophisticated software packages and after many hours on computer...
Researchers at Heidelberg University have devised a new way to study the phenomenon of magnetism. Using ultracold atoms at near absolute zero, they prepared a...
25.11.2015 | Event News
17.11.2015 | Event News
21.10.2015 | Event News
26.11.2015 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
26.11.2015 | Materials Sciences
26.11.2015 | Earth Sciences