New high-temperature superconducting materials are also compatible with high magnetic fields
In fusion reactor designs, superconductors (which suffer no resistive power loss) are used to generate the magnetic fields that confine the 100 million degree C plasma.
While increasing magnetic field strength offers potential ways to improve reactor performance, conventional low-temperature superconductors suffer dramatic drops in current carrying ability at high magnetic fields. Now, the emergence of high-temperature superconductors that can also operate at high magnetic fields opens a new, lower-cost path to fusion energy.
A typical measure of fusion plasma performance is called "plasma beta," which is the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure. Achieving a very high beta--generating the required plasma pressure with low magnetic field--could help reduce the cost of the superconducting magnets used in a fusion reactor.
For this reason, many visions of fusion reactors try to maximize plasma beta at moderate magnetic field strengths. Operation at higher beta, however, pushes the plasma up against many performance limits, making plasma stability a tricky business.
But plasma beta is not the only consideration. Another ratio, the size of the confined plasma compared to the ion gyroradius, also determines overall energy confinement and dictates plasma performance. (The ion gyroradius is the helical path ions are forced to follow in the magnetic field.)
Increasing magnetic field strength decreases the ion gyroradius, which allows a reduction in the size of the fusion device with no loss of performance. This approach also lowers beta and the plasma operates farther away from stability limits, in a "safe zone."
While scientists have explored both of these paths to improving performance, the recent development of the so-called "high-temperature superconductors" opens a window for much higher magnetic fields, as the critical currents do not degrade rapidly, even at magnetic field values of 30 Tesla or higher. So these should really be called high-temperature, high-magnetic-field superconductors.
For tokamak design, the field strength limits are primarily determined by the maximum allowable stresses in the structural components holding the magnet together, and not by the intrinsic limits of the superconductors.
Even the most aggressive tokamak designs with conventional superconductor technology are limited to about 6 Tesla on-axis toroidal magnetic fields. By nearly doubling magnetic field strength, to about 10 Tesla on-axis, conceptual designs indicate that a tokamak approximately the physical size of the world's largest currently operating tokamak, JET, would be capable of producing 500 MW of fusion power, and even net electricity (Figure 1).
High-temperature, high-magnetic-field superconductors can also make it possible to incorporate jointed magnetic coils into the reactor design, dramatically improving flexibility, and ultimately, maintainability for reactor systems.
While several physics and technology challenges remain to be solved, the world-wide experience from tokamak experiments provides the basis to support a new path of exploration into compact, power producing reactors using the newly available high-temperature, high-magnetic-field superconducting technology.
Contact: Earl Marmar, (617) 253-5455, email@example.com
Abstracts: JT2.00001 Considerations of the high magnetic field tokamak path on the approach to fusion energy
Session Session JT2: Tutorial: Considerations of the High Magnetic Field Tokamak Path on the Approach to Fusion Energy
2:00 PM-3:00 PM, Tuesday, November 17, 2015
Room: Chatham Ballroom C
Saralyn Stewart | EurekAlert!
Basque researchers turn light upside down
23.02.2018 | Elhuyar Fundazioa
Attoseconds break into atomic interior
23.02.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik
A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.
By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy