Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Simplifying genetic codes to look back in time

27.08.2012
Tokyo Institute of Technology researchers show simpler versions of the universal genetic code can still function in protein synthesis. In addition to understanding early primordial organisms, the research could lead to applications preventing non-natural genetically modified materials from entering the natural world.

Daisuke Kiga and co-workers at the Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science at Tokyo Institute of Technology, together with researchers across Japan, have shown that simpler versions of the universal genetic code, created by knocking out certain amino acids, can still function efficiently and accurately in protein synthesis [1].

The researchers conducted experiments altering the genetic codein a test tube. They removed the amino acid tryptophan and discovered that the resulting simplified code could still generate proteins as before. By knocking out individual amino acids and observing the effects, scientists will be able to understand how early primordial organisms may have functioned and evolved. There will be also numerous applications for simplified genetic strains in laboratory experiments, which could potentially prevent non-natural genetically modified materials from entering the natural world.

Details: Background, significance, and future developments

Daisuke Kiga and co-workers of the Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science at Tokyo Institute of Technology, together with researchers across Japan, have shown that simpler versions of the universal genetic code - created by knocking out certain amino acids - can still function efficiently and accurately in protein synthesis. The researchers conducted cell-free experiments altering the genetic code.
All current life forms on Earth have 20 amino acids in their genetic code. However, scientists believe that this was not always the case, and that organisms evolved from simpler genetic codes with fewer amino acids. Amino acids are linked in accordance with codons – a 3-letter combination of the four base nucleotides (G, A, T and C) in a genetic code. There are 64 possible codons, and so most amino acids are produced by several different codons, except for tryptophan and methionine, which are generated by just one codon each. Tryptophan is thought to be the most recent amino acid to become part of the universal genetic code.

Kiga and his team took the codon for tryptophan, and reassigned it to code for the amino acid alanine instead. They discovered the resulting simplified code could still generate proteins as before. The researchers also reassigned another codon originally for the amino acid cysteine and replaced it with serine. This simplified code without cysteine was able to synthesise an active enzyme.
By knocking out individual amino acids and observing the effects, scientists will be able to understand how early primordial organisms may have functioned and evolved. There are also numerous applications for simplified genetic codes in laboratory experiments and clinical trials.

Before emergence of the current universal genetic code, primitive organisms that may have used only 19 amino acids could benefit from horizontal gene transfer, where cells transfer genetic material between one another. This is a key method used by bacteria to develop resistance to drugs. An organism with the current universal genetic code for 20 amino acids would have competitive advantages in its ability to synthesise proteins, but could not engage in genetic transfer with the rest of the population. Only when a suitably large gene pool of organisms with 20 amino acids is available could horizontal transfer occur between these life forms and they could then thrive. This implies that organisms with a simpler genetic code could be used as a barrier in laboratory experiments, preventing new genetically modified strains from escaping to the natural world.
Further information:

Yukiko Tokida
Center for Public Information, Tokyo Institute of Technology
2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
E-mail: kouhou@jim.titech.ac.jp
URL: http://www.titech.ac.jp/english/
Tel: +81-3-5734-2975
Fax: +81-3-5734-3661

About Tokyo Institute of Technology

As one of Japan’s top universities, Tokyo Institute of Technology seeks to contribute to civilization, peace and prosperity in the world, and aims at developing global human capabilities par excellence through pioneering research and education in science and technology, including industrial and social management. To achieve this mission, we have an eye on educating highly moral students to acquire not only scientific expertise but also expertise in the liberal arts, and a balanced knowledge of the social sciences and humanities, all while researching deeply from basics to practice with academic mastery. Through these activities, we wish to contribute to global sustainability of the natural world and the support of human life.
Reference
1 A. Kawahara-Kobayashi et al. Simplification of the genetic code: restricted diversity of genetically encoded amino acids. Nucleic Acids Research (2012) As yet unpublished

Adarsh Sandhu | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.titech.ac.jp/english/
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Researchers release the brakes on the immune system
18.10.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht Norovirus evades immune system by hiding out in rare gut cells
12.10.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>