Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Simplifying genetic codes to look back in time

27.08.2012
Tokyo Institute of Technology researchers show simpler versions of the universal genetic code can still function in protein synthesis. In addition to understanding early primordial organisms, the research could lead to applications preventing non-natural genetically modified materials from entering the natural world.

Daisuke Kiga and co-workers at the Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science at Tokyo Institute of Technology, together with researchers across Japan, have shown that simpler versions of the universal genetic code, created by knocking out certain amino acids, can still function efficiently and accurately in protein synthesis [1].

The researchers conducted experiments altering the genetic codein a test tube. They removed the amino acid tryptophan and discovered that the resulting simplified code could still generate proteins as before. By knocking out individual amino acids and observing the effects, scientists will be able to understand how early primordial organisms may have functioned and evolved. There will be also numerous applications for simplified genetic strains in laboratory experiments, which could potentially prevent non-natural genetically modified materials from entering the natural world.

Details: Background, significance, and future developments

Daisuke Kiga and co-workers of the Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science at Tokyo Institute of Technology, together with researchers across Japan, have shown that simpler versions of the universal genetic code - created by knocking out certain amino acids - can still function efficiently and accurately in protein synthesis. The researchers conducted cell-free experiments altering the genetic code.
All current life forms on Earth have 20 amino acids in their genetic code. However, scientists believe that this was not always the case, and that organisms evolved from simpler genetic codes with fewer amino acids. Amino acids are linked in accordance with codons – a 3-letter combination of the four base nucleotides (G, A, T and C) in a genetic code. There are 64 possible codons, and so most amino acids are produced by several different codons, except for tryptophan and methionine, which are generated by just one codon each. Tryptophan is thought to be the most recent amino acid to become part of the universal genetic code.

Kiga and his team took the codon for tryptophan, and reassigned it to code for the amino acid alanine instead. They discovered the resulting simplified code could still generate proteins as before. The researchers also reassigned another codon originally for the amino acid cysteine and replaced it with serine. This simplified code without cysteine was able to synthesise an active enzyme.
By knocking out individual amino acids and observing the effects, scientists will be able to understand how early primordial organisms may have functioned and evolved. There are also numerous applications for simplified genetic codes in laboratory experiments and clinical trials.

Before emergence of the current universal genetic code, primitive organisms that may have used only 19 amino acids could benefit from horizontal gene transfer, where cells transfer genetic material between one another. This is a key method used by bacteria to develop resistance to drugs. An organism with the current universal genetic code for 20 amino acids would have competitive advantages in its ability to synthesise proteins, but could not engage in genetic transfer with the rest of the population. Only when a suitably large gene pool of organisms with 20 amino acids is available could horizontal transfer occur between these life forms and they could then thrive. This implies that organisms with a simpler genetic code could be used as a barrier in laboratory experiments, preventing new genetically modified strains from escaping to the natural world.
Further information:

Yukiko Tokida
Center for Public Information, Tokyo Institute of Technology
2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
E-mail: kouhou@jim.titech.ac.jp
URL: http://www.titech.ac.jp/english/
Tel: +81-3-5734-2975
Fax: +81-3-5734-3661

About Tokyo Institute of Technology

As one of Japan’s top universities, Tokyo Institute of Technology seeks to contribute to civilization, peace and prosperity in the world, and aims at developing global human capabilities par excellence through pioneering research and education in science and technology, including industrial and social management. To achieve this mission, we have an eye on educating highly moral students to acquire not only scientific expertise but also expertise in the liberal arts, and a balanced knowledge of the social sciences and humanities, all while researching deeply from basics to practice with academic mastery. Through these activities, we wish to contribute to global sustainability of the natural world and the support of human life.
Reference
1 A. Kawahara-Kobayashi et al. Simplification of the genetic code: restricted diversity of genetically encoded amino acids. Nucleic Acids Research (2012) As yet unpublished

Adarsh Sandhu | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.titech.ac.jp/english/
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Laser activated gold pyramids could deliver drugs, DNA into cells without harm
24.03.2017 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

nachricht What does congenital Zika syndrome look like?
24.03.2017 | University of California - San Diego

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Argon is not the 'dope' for metallic hydrogen

24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>