Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists explain how insulin secreting cells maintain their glucose sensitivity

06.09.2007
Scientists at the leading Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet have now disclosed the mystery how the insulin-secreting cells maintain an appropriate number of ATP sensing ion channel proteins on their surface.

This mechanism, which is described in the latest number of Cell Metabolism, explains how the human body can keep the blood glucose concentration within the normal range and thereby avoid the development of diabetes.

Blood sugar absorbed from food has to timely enter muscles as energy supply as well as the liver and fat tissue for energy storage. Otherwise, diabetes occurs. Such glucose transport is precisely controlled by insulin, the body’s only hormone capable of lowering blood sugar. This hormone is released from insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas.

The ion channel proteins that are regulated by ATP and that transport potassium ions (KATP channels) are situated on the surface of the insulin-secreting cells to sense blood sugar and control sugar-stimulated insulin secretion. However, it has been a long-standing mystery how the insulin-secreting cells keep an appropriate number of KATP channels on their surface. Scientists at the the Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Karolinska Institutet, have now disclosed a new traffic route whereby sugar promotes the insulin secretion controller KATP channel to march to its post.

Dogmatically, only two routes were believed to operate in insulin-secreting cells to deliver the macromolecules newly manufactured or modified inside cells to the cell surface where they

release or reside to function. One is referred to as a regulated insulin secretory pathway. The other is termed a constitutive pathway to renew cell surface lipids and proteins including KATP channels.

“We have now found that the newly manufactured KATP channels in insulin-secreting cells reside in a non-insulin-containing structure, which contains the regulated secretory granule marker chromogranin,” says Per-Olof Berggren. “Such a structure moves to the cell surface subsequent to elevation of sugar concentration in a Ca2+- and protein kinase A-dependent fashion.”

According to Professor Berggren the discovery is very important. This entirely new traffic route endows insulin-secreting cells with an efficient way to maintain an appropriate number of KATP channels on their surface and thereby being able to adequately keep the blood glucose concentration within the normal range thus avoiding the development of diabetes.

Katarina Sternudd | alfa
Further information:
http://ki.se

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Electrical 'switch' in brain's capillary network monitors activity and controls blood flow
27.03.2017 | Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont

nachricht Laser activated gold pyramids could deliver drugs, DNA into cells without harm
24.03.2017 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Northern oceans pumped CO2 into the atmosphere

27.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

Fingerprint' technique spots frog populations at risk from pollution

27.03.2017 | Life Sciences

Big data approach to predict protein structure

27.03.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>