Dr Theresa Hickey and Prof Robert Norman, University of Adelaide, Australia, and colleagues, reviewed published literature on PCOS up to November 2006 to prepare the Seminar.
Many body systems are affected in PCOS, resulting in several health complications, including menstrual dysfunction, infertility, hirsutism (excessive body hair growth), acne, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Principal symptoms of PCOS are polycystic ovaries shown by ultrasonography, irregular ovulation, and excessive amounts or activity of male hormones (hyperandrogenism). Type 2 diabetes is also more common in women with PCOS. Two differing definitions of PCOS, one from 1990 and the other from 2003, lead to differing statistics and consequences for studies depending on which definition is selected.
The cause of PCOS remains unknown, although both environmental and genetic factors are implicated. Research is focussing on whether the primary cause of the syndrome is due to a defect within the ovary, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, or is primarily due to abnormal insulin activity. Obesity is a major risk factor for PCOS, and as such realistic and achievable weight loss can be sufficient to restore regular ovulation and improve fertility in obese women with this disorder.
The authors say: “Skin and hair disorders can be substantial in women with PCOS, and are physically and psychologically very damaging.” Abnormal body hair growth and acne are usually combated with oral contraceptives, which have the advantage of both regulating the menstrual cycle and providing contraception.
The connection between PCOS and infertility is discussed in detail, as is the so called “gold standard” treatment of clomifene, which simulates follicle growth and ovulation. Complications of infertility treatment for women with PCOS include multiple pregnancy after ovulation induction, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (which can be life-threatening) and in-vitro fertilisation cycle cancellation. For pregnant women, PCOS can cause early pregnancy loss, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, and a higher risk of delivery by caesarean section.
The authors conclude that the burden of PCOS is likely to expand, saying: “Future priorities in relation to PCOS include the development of evidence-based criteria for diagnosis and treatment, and determination of the natural history, cause, long-term consequences and prevention of the disorder.”
Tony Kirby | alfa
3D images of cancer cells in the body: Medical physicists from Halle present new method
16.05.2018 | Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
Better equipped in the fight against lung cancer
16.05.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...
A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.
The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...
Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.
Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...
A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.
Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
18.05.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
18.05.2018 | Information Technology
18.05.2018 | Information Technology