Stressed individuals might be particularly prone to binge eating or drug addiction because of the high levels of the stress hormone corticotropin-releasing factor in their brain. A study published today in the open access journal BMC Biology (http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcbiol/) shows that rats with levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in their brain similar to the levels experienced by humans when they are stressed show an exaggerated craving for a reward – a piece of sugar - whenever presented with a cue that had previously been associated with that reward. This result explains why stressed individuals might be more likely to experience strong cravings for rewards and compulsively indulge in pleasurable activities such as eating or taking drugs.
Susana Peciña and Kent Berridge from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and Jay Schulkin from Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA, injected rats with either a high dose (500ng/0.2 ml) or a low dose (250ng/ 0.2 ml) of CRF. They injected the rats in a part of the brain called nucleus accumbens, known to be involved in the mediation of both pleasurable rewards and stress signals in humans as well as rats. They observed the behaviour of the rats in response to a cue – a 30-second long tone- that had previously been associated with the release of a reward, in the form of sugar pellets. When they heard the cue, the rats pressed on a lever that they expected to release more sugar pellets. The authors made sure that the rats did not experience stress as a result of CRF itself or of other factors in the experimental set-up.
Peciña et al.’s results show that injection of a high dose of CRF tripled the intensity of bursts of sugar craving, as indicated by the intensity of the lever-pressing activity lever. The lever-pressing activity was only enhanced if the injection of CRF was followed by the cue – it did not increase following the injection alone. The low dose of CRF, or an empty injection, also failed to enhance the lever-pressing activity significantly.
Millions through license revenues
27.04.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
New High-Performance Center Translational Medical Engineering
26.04.2017 | Fraunhofer ITEM
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences