Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Number and quality of kidney transplants much greater if national matching program adopted

20.04.2005


A collaboration between Johns Hopkins and Massachusetts Institute of Technology scientists has mathematically demonstrated that a national matching program for kidney paired donation, also called paired kidney exchange, would ensure the best possible kidney for the greatest number of recipients who have incompatible donors. Kidney paired donation (KPD) provides organs to patients who have a willing, designated donor who is not compatible. A kidney from such a donor is matched to -- and transplanted into -- the recipient of a second incompatible donor-patient pair, and vice versa. The transplants are performed simultaneously.



The researchers have developed an interactive Web site, www.OptimizedMatch.com, that provides more details and interactive demonstrations of the algorithm and its use in transplantation.

"Our findings demonstrate that a national pool of kidney donors and recipients, combined with new mathematical techniques for sorting through them to find the best possible organ matches, will not only allow more people to get the transplants they need, but will dramatically cut health care costs, reduce disruptive and unnecessary travel for patients, and insure that transplanted kidneys have the best possible chance of survival," said Dorry L. Segev, M.D., a surgeon at Johns Hopkins and lead author of a report published in the April 20, 2005, issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.


"Even if only 7 percent of patients awaiting kidney transplantation participated in an optimized national KPD program, the health care system could save as much as $750 million," said Segev.

More than 60,000 people await kidney donation and are listed on the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) recipient registry, and nearly one-third of patients with willing donors are excluded from kidney transplantation because of blood-type and other incompatibilities, according to the report.

Despite its promise, only 51 patients have received transplants via paired donation because just a handful of institutions are performing the procedures based on local or regional patient databases, added the authors.

"Clearly, a national matching program is the best solution for incompatible donors and recipients, but for such a program to be successful we need to make sure that all patients get the best possible match" said Segev.

Segev, in collaboration with his wife, Sommer E. Gentry, M.S., an applied mathematician at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and other colleagues developed a new kidney donor matching system, or algorithm, that uses a technology called optimization. This technology has already proved successful in facilitating tasks such as airline scheduling and online driving directions. They then created a mathematical model that uses simulated pools of incompatible donor/recipient pairs to determine if their new matching algorithm might improve matches that can be found in a small (regional) or large (national) pool. The researchers compared the optimized algorithm with the scheme currently used in some centers and regions. The model included simulated patients from the general community with characteristics drawn from distributions describing end-stage kidney disease patients eligible for kidney transplantation and live donors.

The researchers found that a national optimized matching algorithm would result in more transplants, better matches and more transplanted kidneys surviving at five years when compared with an extension of the currently used method to a national level. Highly sensitized patients, who are extremely difficult to match and typically wait almost seven years for a deceased donor kidney, would benefit six-fold from a national optimized algorithm (14.1 percent matched versus 2.3 percent). Furthermore, the results show that optimization would dramatically reduce the number of pairs required to travel (2.9 percent vs. 18.4 percent).

Another benefit of a national KPD model is that patients and doctors will be able to choose which priorities are highest for the patients in the system, added the authors. For example, individual patients can set their own priorities based on distance they are willing to travel or on the quality of the kidney matched to them.

Trent Stockton | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://jama.ama-assn.org/
http://www.jhmi.edu
http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/transplant/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology
07.12.2016 | Nanyang Technological University

nachricht How to turn white fat brown
07.12.2016 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

The balancing act: An enzyme that links endocytosis to membrane recycling

07.12.2016 | Life Sciences

How to turn white fat brown

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>