TAU researchers discover a link between sharp vision and the brain's processing speed
Middle-aged adults who suddenly need reading glasses, patients with traumatic brain injuries, and people with visual disorders such as "lazy eye" may have one thing in common — "visual crowding," an inability to recognize individual items surrounded by multiple objects. Visual crowding makes it impossible to read, as single letters within words are rendered illegible. And basic cognitive functions such as facial recognition can also be significantly hampered. Scientists and clinicians currently attribute crowding to a disorder in peripheral vision.
Now Prof. Uri Polat, Maria Lev, and Dr. Oren Yehezkel of Tel Aviv University's Goldschleger Eye Research Institute at the Sackler Faculty of Medicine have discovered new evidence that correlates crowding in the fovea — a small part of the retina responsible for sharp vision — and the brain's processing speed. These findings, published in Nature's Scientific Reports, could greatly alter earlier models of visual crowding, which emphasized peripheral impairment exclusively. And for many adults lost without their reading glasses, this could improve their vision significantly.
"Current theories strongly stress that visual crowding does not exist in the fovea, that it's a phenomenon that exists only in peripheral visual fields," said Prof. Polat. "But our study points to another part of the eye altogether — the fovea — and contributes to a unified model for how the brain integrates visual information."
A trained eye
According to Prof. Polat, vision is dynamic and changes rapidly, but it takes time for the brain to process this visual information. Rapidly moving tickers on TV, or traffic signs seen as the driver speeds past, are difficult for anyone to read. However, given enough time, someone with excellent vision can fully recognize the words. Those with slower processing speeds — usually the result of poor perceptive development or age — may not be able to decipher the tickers or the traffic signs. In the study, Prof. Polat employed his expertise in improving vision by retraining the brain and the foveal part of the eye, using exercises in which speed is a key element.
"Training adults to reduce foveal crowding leads to improved vision. A similar training we conducted two years ago allowed adults to eliminate their use of reading glasses altogether, using a technology provided by the GlassesOff company. Other patients who had lost sharp vision for whatever reason were also able to benefit from the same training and improve their processing speed and visual capabilities," said Prof. Polat.
Maria Lev, who performed the study as a part of her doctoral thesis, said one young subject had experienced significant limitations in school for years and had been unable to obtain a driver's license due to severe visual impairment from foveal crowding. After undergoing training that emphasized a foveal rather than a peripheral focus, he was able to overcome the handicap.
"He finally managed to learn to read properly and found his way forward," said Lev. "I'm proud to say that today he is not only eligible for a driver's license, he's also been able to earn his master's degree."
Prof. Polat and his team are currently exploring how visual integration and foveal crowding develop in various clinical cases.
George Hunka | EurekAlert!
A 'half-hearted' solution to one-sided heart failure
24.11.2017 | Boston Children's Hospital
New study points the way to therapy for rare cancer that targets the young
22.11.2017 | Rockefeller University
High-precision measurement of the g-factor eleven times more precise than before / Results indicate a strong similarity between protons and antiprotons
The magnetic moment of an individual proton is inconceivably small, but can still be quantified. The basis for undertaking this measurement was laid over ten...
Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
24.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.11.2017 | Health and Medicine
24.11.2017 | Earth Sciences