Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New vaccine shows promise as stronger weapon against both tuberculosis and leprosy

20.08.2014

UCLA-led research finds that a variant of an existing vaccine offers stronger protection against both diseases

In many parts of the world, leprosy and tuberculosis live side-by-side. Worldwide there are approximately 233,000 new cases of leprosy per year, with nearly all of them occurring where tuberculosis is endemic.

Antigen 85B Structure

This image depicts the structure of antigen 85B.

Credit: Reproduced from Anderson et.al. , J. Molec. Biol. 307:671, 2001.

The currently available century-old vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guerin, or BCG, provides only partial protection against both tuberculosis and leprosy, so a more potent vaccine is needed to combat both diseases. UCLA-led research may have found a stronger weapon against both diseases.

In a study published in the September issue of the peer-reviewed journal Infection and Immunity, the researchers found that rBCG30, a recombinant variant of BCG that overexpresses a highly abundant 30 kDa protein of the tuberculosis bacterium known as Antigen 85B, is superior to BCG in protecting against tuberculosis in animal models, and also cross protects against leprosy. In addition, they found that boosting rBCG30 with the Antigen 85B protein, a protein also expressed by the leprosy bacillus, provides considerably stronger protection against leprosy.

... more about:
»Antigen »BCG »Health »TB »bacteria »diseases »effectiveness »immune »leprosy

"This is the first study demonstrating that an improved vaccine against tuberculosis also offers cross-protection against Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy," said Dr. Marcus A. Horwitz, professor of medicine and microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics, and the study's senior author. "That means that this vaccine has promise for better protecting against both major diseases at the same time.

"It is also the first study demonstrating that boosting a recombinant BCG vaccine further improves cross-protection against leprosy," he added.

In one experiment, mice were immunized with either rBCG30 or the old BCG vaccine, or they were given a salt solution. Ten weeks later, the mice were injected with live leprosy bacteria into their footpads and seven months after that, the number of leprosy bacteria in their footpads was measured. The researchers found that the mice given BCG or rBCG30 had much fewer leprosy bacteria in their footpads than the mice given the salt solution. Additionally, mice immunized with rBCG30 had significantly fewer leprosy bacteria than those vaccinated with BCG.

In a second experiment, the mice were first immunized with BCG or rBCG30, and then immunized with a booster vaccine (r30) consisting of the TB bacterium's 30-kDa Antigen 85B protein in adjuvant — that is, in a chemical formulation that enhances the immune response. The group of mice immunized with rBCG30 and boosted with r30 had no detectable leprosy bacteria in their footpads, in contrast to groups of mice immunized with all other vaccines tested, including BCG and rBCG30 alone and BCG boosted with r30.

In other experiments, the immune responses of the mice were measured after vaccination. Mice immunized with rBCG30 and boosted with r30 had markedly enhanced immune responses to the leprosy bacterium's version of the Antigen 85B protein, which is very similar to the one expressed by the tuberculosis bacillus, compared with mice immunized with the other vaccines and vaccine combinations.

A Phase 1 human trial for rBCG30 has proven that it is safe and significantly more effective than BCG, and it is the only candidate replacement vaccine for BCG tested thus far to satisfy both of these key clinical criteria. Horwitz noted that this most recent study, however, was conducted in an animal model of leprosy, so further study is needed to gauge the effectiveness of the rBCG30 vaccine in protecting against leprosy in humans.

The next step in the research will be to test the rBCG30 vaccine for efficacy in humans against TB. If it's effective against TB, then the next step would be to test its effectiveness in humans against leprosy.

###

The study's co-authors are Thomas Gillis of Louisiana State University and Michael Tullius of UCLA.

Grants from the National Institutes of Health (AI031338) and the National Hansen's Disease Programs funded this study. In addition, grants from UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (P30 CA016042) and the Center for AIDS Research (5P30 AI028697) supported flow cytometry studies used to measure immune responses, and the American Leprosy Missions supported the nude mouse colony used for the propagation of M. leprae.

Enrique Rivero | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.uclahealth.org/

Further reports about: Antigen BCG Health TB bacteria diseases effectiveness immune leprosy

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Automated driving: Steering without limits

OmniSteer project to increase automobiles’ urban maneuverability begins with a € 3.4 million budget

Automobiles increase the mobility of their users. However, their maneuverability is pushed to the limit by cramped inner city conditions. Those who need to...

Im Focus: Microscopy: Nine at one blow

Advance in biomedical imaging: The University of Würzburg's Biocenter has enhanced fluorescence microscopy to label and visualise up to nine different cell structures simultaneously.

Fluorescence microscopy allows researchers to visualise biomolecules in cells. They label the molecules using fluorescent probes, excite them with light and...

Im Focus: NASA's ICESat-2 equipped with unique 3-D manufactured part

NASA's follow-on to the successful ICESat mission will employ a never-before-flown technique for determining the topography of ice sheets and the thickness of sea ice, but that won't be the only first for this mission.

Slated for launch in 2018, NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) also will carry a 3-D printed part made of polyetherketoneketone (PEKK),...

Im Focus: Sinking islands: Does the rise of sea level endanger the Takuu Atoll in the Pacific?

In the last decades, sea level has been rising continuously – about 3.3 mm per year. For reef islands such as the Maldives or the Marshall Islands a sinister picture is being painted evoking the demise of the island states and their cultures. Are the effects of sea-level rise already noticeable on reef islands? Scientists from the ZMT have now answered this question for the Takuu Atoll, a group of Pacific islands, located northeast of Papua New Guinea.

In the last decades, sea level has been rising continuously – about 3.3 mm per year. For reef islands such as the Maldives or the Marshall Islands a sinister...

Im Focus: Energy-saving minicomputers for the ‘Internet of Things’

The ‘Internet of Things’ is growing rapidly. Mobile phones, washing machines and the milk bottle in the fridge: the idea is that minicomputers connected to these will be able to process information, receive and send data. This requires electrical power. Transistors that are capable of switching information with a single electron use far less power than field effect transistors that are commonly used in computers. However, these innovative electronic switches do not yet work at room temperature. Scientists working on the new EU research project ‘Ions4Set’ intend to change this. The program will be launched on February 1. It is coordinated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR).

“Billions of tiny computers will in future communicate with each other via the Internet or locally. Yet power consumption currently remains a great obstacle”,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

AKL’16: Experience Laser Technology Live in Europe´s Largest Laser Application Center!

02.02.2016 | Event News

From intelligent knee braces to anti-theft backpacks

26.01.2016 | Event News

DATE 2016 Highlighting Automotive and Secure Systems

26.01.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

A new potential biomarker for cancer imaging

05.02.2016 | Life Sciences

Graphene is strong, but is it tough?

05.02.2016 | Materials Sciences

Tiniest Particles Shrink Before Exploding When Hit With SLAC's X-ray Laser

05.02.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>