Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New leukemia treatment offers hope

23.09.2016

Antibodies directed against cancer stem cells could help patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

An antibody drug that targets a surface marker on cancer stem cells could offer a promising new therapeutic approach for treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a form of blood cancer that affects an estimated 50,000 people in Saudi Arabia.


Antibodies that block CD44 could help destroy acute myeloid leukemia cells. © 2016 KAUST

The leukemia stem cells responsible for propagating the disease express a protein on their surface called CD44. Antibodies that block CD44 have been shown to trigger the stem cells to mature, leading to a reduction in the growth and proliferation of these stubbornly hard-to-treat cells. But it wasn’t clear how or why this happens.

Jasmeen Merzaban and her colleagues from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia, studied the signaling pathways that change through treatment with a CD44-directed antibody [1]. Working with both human AML cell lines and a mouse model, the researchers showed that inhibiting CD44 with the antibody led to a decrease in the expression of two central pathways implicated in the aberrant growth of cancer cells: the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathways.

Notably, the antibody blocked both of the structurally distinct complexes that include mTOR. That’s important because a complete shutdown of mTOR signaling is probably needed to disrupt the multiple feedback loops that can fuel cancer growth, and drugs that only inhibit one of these complexes have in the past, failed to demonstrate a therapeutic benefit for patients with AML.

“A growing body of evidence suggests that a broader inhibitor would result in a more potent therapeutic effect,” said Merzaban.

An anti-CD44 drug like the one tested by Merzaban might just be that broad inhibitor. Encouragingly, in her team’s hands it doesn’t seem to have toxicity issues.

“We show that the anti-CD44 antibody used for our studies had no effect on normal blood cells,” said Samah Gadhoum, a research scientist in Merzaban’s lab group at KAUST and the first author of the study. “However, more work is needed to carefully determine the effect of these antibodies on other cells and other cellular functions within the body.”

Merzaban, Gadhoum and their colleagues are now running follow-up experiments. For now, though, all their results “support the use of anti-CD44 antibodies for the treatment of AML as a differentiation-inducing therapy,” said Merzaban.

As an added bonus: Unlike other therapies that seem to work only for certain forms of the disease, “the interesting thing about CD44-antibody treatment is that it is able to induce differentiation of many more AML subtypes,” said Merzaban.

Associated links

Journal information

[1] Gadhoum, S.Z., Madhoun, N.Y., Abuelela, A.F. & Merzaban, J.S. Anti-CD44 antibodies inhibit both mTORC1 and mTORC2: A new rationale supporting CD44-induced AML differentiation therapy. Leukemia advance online publication 8 August 2016 (doi: 10.1038/leu.2016.221).

Michelle D'Antoni | Research SEA
Further information:
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Team discovers how bacteria exploit a chink in the body's armor
20.01.2017 | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

nachricht Rabies viruses reveal wiring in transparent brains
19.01.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>