Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New leukemia treatment offers hope

23.09.2016

Antibodies directed against cancer stem cells could help patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

An antibody drug that targets a surface marker on cancer stem cells could offer a promising new therapeutic approach for treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a form of blood cancer that affects an estimated 50,000 people in Saudi Arabia.


Antibodies that block CD44 could help destroy acute myeloid leukemia cells. © 2016 KAUST

The leukemia stem cells responsible for propagating the disease express a protein on their surface called CD44. Antibodies that block CD44 have been shown to trigger the stem cells to mature, leading to a reduction in the growth and proliferation of these stubbornly hard-to-treat cells. But it wasn’t clear how or why this happens.

Jasmeen Merzaban and her colleagues from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia, studied the signaling pathways that change through treatment with a CD44-directed antibody [1]. Working with both human AML cell lines and a mouse model, the researchers showed that inhibiting CD44 with the antibody led to a decrease in the expression of two central pathways implicated in the aberrant growth of cancer cells: the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathways.

Notably, the antibody blocked both of the structurally distinct complexes that include mTOR. That’s important because a complete shutdown of mTOR signaling is probably needed to disrupt the multiple feedback loops that can fuel cancer growth, and drugs that only inhibit one of these complexes have in the past, failed to demonstrate a therapeutic benefit for patients with AML.

“A growing body of evidence suggests that a broader inhibitor would result in a more potent therapeutic effect,” said Merzaban.

An anti-CD44 drug like the one tested by Merzaban might just be that broad inhibitor. Encouragingly, in her team’s hands it doesn’t seem to have toxicity issues.

“We show that the anti-CD44 antibody used for our studies had no effect on normal blood cells,” said Samah Gadhoum, a research scientist in Merzaban’s lab group at KAUST and the first author of the study. “However, more work is needed to carefully determine the effect of these antibodies on other cells and other cellular functions within the body.”

Merzaban, Gadhoum and their colleagues are now running follow-up experiments. For now, though, all their results “support the use of anti-CD44 antibodies for the treatment of AML as a differentiation-inducing therapy,” said Merzaban.

As an added bonus: Unlike other therapies that seem to work only for certain forms of the disease, “the interesting thing about CD44-antibody treatment is that it is able to induce differentiation of many more AML subtypes,” said Merzaban.

Associated links

Journal information

[1] Gadhoum, S.Z., Madhoun, N.Y., Abuelela, A.F. & Merzaban, J.S. Anti-CD44 antibodies inhibit both mTORC1 and mTORC2: A new rationale supporting CD44-induced AML differentiation therapy. Leukemia advance online publication 8 August 2016 (doi: 10.1038/leu.2016.221).

Michelle D'Antoni | Research SEA
Further information:
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease
22.08.2017 | Duke University

nachricht Once invincible superbug squashed by 'superteam' of antibiotics
22.08.2017 | University at Buffalo

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease

22.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

Meter-sized single-crystal graphene growth becomes possible

22.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

Repairing damaged hearts with self-healing heart cells

22.08.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>