WHAT: Expanded use of active surveillance for bacteria and of barrier precautions—specifically, gloves and gowns—did not reduce the transmission of two important antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospital-based settings, according to a prospective, randomized clinical trial conducted in 18 intensive care units in the United States.
Incomplete compliance by health care providers with recommended hand hygiene procedures and the use of gloves and gowns, along with time lags in confirming the presence of bacteria in patients, may have contributed to the findings, which are published in the April 14 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. The study was primarily funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) bacteria—major causes of difficult-to-treat, hospital-based infections—can be spread from patient to patient on the hands of healthcare providers and via objects and surfaces such as clothing, chairs, doorknobs and medical equipment.
In the Strategies to Reduce Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria in Intensive Care Units (STAR*ICU) clinical trial, one of the largest studies looking at the spread of infections in hospitals to date, researchers led by W. Charles Huskins, M.D., of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., examined whether actively screening patients for MRSA and VRE and employing greater use of barrier precautions along with hand hygiene among healthcare workers could reduce bacteria transmission in comparison with existing ICU practices.
Active screening of culture samples identified patients not previously known to carry MRSA or VRE bacteria; however, there was no difference in the frequency of new bacteria or infection events between those patients who received care according to the expanded interventions and those in the control group who did not. Trained monitors observed that health care professionals in both the control and intervention groups practiced proper hand hygiene and used gloves and gowns less often than required.
The authors conclude that to substantially decrease the transmission of MRSA and VRE bacteria in health care settings, improved compliance with isolation precautions, recommended in some cases, may need to be coupled with interventions to reduce the presence of the bacteria on body sites and decrease environmental contamination.
More information about NIAID's multifaceted research efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance is available on the NIAID Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Web portal (http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/antimicrobialresistance/Pages/default.aspx).
WC Huskins et al. Interventions to reduce transmission of resistant bacteria in intensive care units. New England Journal of Medicine DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1000373 (2011).
NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., and Dennis Dixon, Ph.D., chief of the Bacteriology and Mycology Branch in the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, are available to comment on this article.
To schedule interviews, please contact Ann Mosher, (301) 402-1663, or email@example.com.
NIAID conducts and supports research—at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide—to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID Web site at http://www.niaid.nih.gov.
About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.
Ann Mosher | EurekAlert!
New High-Performance Center Translational Medical Engineering
26.04.2017 | Fraunhofer ITEM
A promising target for kidney fibrosis
21.04.2017 | Brigham and Women's Hospital
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
26.04.2017 | Life Sciences
26.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
26.04.2017 | Earth Sciences