Low levels of these chemicals, called biocides, can make the potentially lethal bacterium Staphylococcus aureus remove toxic chemicals from the cell even more efficiently, potentially making it resistant to being killed by some antibiotics.
Biocides are used in disinfectants and antiseptics to kill microbes. They are commonly used in cleaning hospitals and home environments, sterilizing medical equipment and decontaminating skin before surgery. At the correct strength, biocides kill bacteria and other microbes. However, if lower levels are used the bacteria can survive and become resistant to treatment.
"Bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus make proteins that pump many different toxic chemicals out of the cell to interfere with their antibacterial effects," said Dr Glenn Kaatz from the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Detroit, USA. "These efflux pumps can remove antibiotics from the cell and have been shown to make bacteria resistant to those drugs. We wanted to find out if exposure to biocides could also make bacteria resistant to being killed by the action of efflux pumps."
The researchers exposed S. aureus taken from the blood of patients to low concentrations of several biocides and dyes, which are also used frequently in hospitals. They looked at the effect of exposure on the bacteria and found that mutants that make more efflux pumps than normal were produced.
"We found that exposure to low concentrations of a variety of biocides and dyes resulted in the appearance of resistant mutants," said Dr Kaatz. "The number of efflux pumps in the bacteria increased. Because the efflux pumps can also rid the cell of some antibiotics, pathogenic bacteria with more pumps are a threat to patients as they could be more resistant to treatment."
If bacteria that live in protected environments are exposed to biocides repeatedly, for example during cleaning, they can build up resistance to disinfectants and antibiotics. Such bacteria have been shown to contribute to hospital-acquired infections.
"Scientists are trying to develop inhibitors of efflux pumps. Effective inhibitors would reduce the likelihood of additional resistance mechanisms emerging in bacteria," said Dr Kaatz. "Unfortunately, inhibitors evaluated to date do not work on a wide range of pathogens so they are not ideal to prevent resistance."
"Careful use of antibiotics and the use of biocides that are not known to be recognised by efflux pumps may reduce the frequency at which resistant strains are found," said Dr Kaatz. "Alternatively, the combination of a pump inhibitor with an antimicrobial agent or biocide will reduce the emergence of such strains and their clinical impact."
Lucy Goodchild | alfa
'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers
16.02.2018 | National University of Science and Technology MISIS
New process allows tailor-made malaria research
16.02.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.
But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...
Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.
The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...
Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters
Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...
Let’s say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30).
Part of the charm of vintage cars is that they stopped making them long ago, so it is special when you do see one out on the roads. If something breaks or...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
16.02.2018 | Information Technology
16.02.2018 | Health and Medicine
16.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy