Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Circadian rhythms can be modified for potential treatment of disorders

23.01.2013
UCI-led studies identify cellular pathways involved in governing day-night pattern

UC Irvine-led studies have revealed the cellular mechanism by which circadian rhythms – also known as the body clock – modify energy metabolism and also have identified novel compounds that control this action.

The findings point to potential treatments for disorders triggered by circadian rhythm dysfunction, ranging from insomnia and obesity to diabetes and cancer.

UC Irvine’s Paolo Sassone-Corsi, one of the world’s leading researchers on the genetics of circadian rhythms, led the studies and worked with international groups of scientists. Their results are detailed in two companion pieces appearing this week in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.

“Circadian rhythms of 24 hours govern fundamental physiological functions in almost all organisms,” said Sassone-Corsi, the Donald Bren Professor of Biological Chemistry. “The circadian clocks are intrinsic time-tracking systems in our bodies that anticipate environmental changes and adapt themselves to the appropriate time of day. Disruption of these rhythms can profoundly influence human health.”

He added that up to 15 percent of people’s genes are regulated by the day-night pattern of circadian rhythms.

In one study, Sassone-Corsi and colleagues found that the biological clock controls enzymes localized in the mitochondrion, a cellular structure devoted to energy metabolism. This government occurs through acetylation of proteins, a process that operates as a switch to turn genes on and off in cells based upon the cells’ energy usage.

Some of the most important acetylation events in cells are dictated by an enzyme protein called SIRT1, which senses energy levels in the cell. Its activity is modulated by how many nutrients a cell is consuming. It also helps cells resist oxidative and radiation-induced stress. SIRT1 has been linked to the inflammatory response, diabetes and aging.

Sassone-Corsi first showed the circadian rhythm-metabolism link in 2008 and 2009, and in this study, he and his colleagues reveal the metabolic pathways through which SIRT1 works.

“When the balance between clock proteins is upset, normal cellular function can be disrupted,” said Sassone-Corsi, who also directs the Center for Epigenetics & Metabolism at UC Irvine.

In exploring how to regulate SIRT1 activity, Sassone-Corsi teamed with scientists from two research-and-development groups at GlaxoSmithKline – one in the United Kingdom and the other (called Sirtris) in the U.S. – to test proprietary small-molecule compounds that stimulate SIRT1.

In mouse studies, they were able to modulate the scale of circadian-driven gene function with the SIRT1-activating compounds, effectively governing the circadian cycle in a host of genes involved with the metabolic rate in cells. This research proves that small molecules can be used as a pharmacological strategy to control circadian disturbances and is a step toward the development of drugs that could target many conditions, including metabolic disorders, diabetes, cancer and aging.

Postdoctoral researchers Selma Masri and Kristin Eckel-Mahan, graduate student Vishal Patel and Chancellor’s Professor Pierre Baldi of UC Irvine, along with Shahaf Peleg, Ignasi Forne, Andreas Ladurner and Axel Imhof of Germany’s University of Munich, as well as Sassone-Corsi, contributed to the study titled “The Circadian acetylome reveals regulation of mitochondrial metabolic pathways.” The National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, INSERM and Sirtris provided support.

In addition to Sassone-Corsi, postdoctoral researcher Marina Bellet and laboratory assistant Marlene Cervantes of UC Irvine; Mohamed Boudjelal, Emma Watts, Danuta Mossakowska and Kenneth Edwards of GlaxoSmithKline; Giuseppe Astarita of Georgetown University; and Christine Loh, James Ellis and George Vlasuk of Sirtris contributed to the study titled “Pharmacological modulation of circadian rhythms by high-affinity SIRT1 activators.” The National Institutes of Health and INSERM provided support.

About the University of California, Irvine: Founded in 1965, UC Irvine is a top-ranked university dedicated to research, scholarship and community service. Led by Chancellor Michael Drake since 2005, UC Irvine is among the most dynamic campuses in the University of California system, with more than 28,000 undergraduate and graduate students, 1,100 faculty and 9,400 staff. Orange County’s second-largest employer, UC Irvine contributes an annual economic impact of $4.3 billion. For more UC Irvine news, visit news.uci.edu.

News Radio: UC Irvine maintains on campus an ISDN line for conducting interviews with its faculty and experts. Use of this line is available for a fee to radio news programs/stations that wish to interview UC Irvine faculty and experts. Use of the ISDN line is subject to availability and approval by the university.

Tom Vasich | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uci.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Team discovers how bacteria exploit a chink in the body's armor
20.01.2017 | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

nachricht Rabies viruses reveal wiring in transparent brains
19.01.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>