The findings are published in the May 1 issue of Radiation Research. John E. Baker, Ph.D., professor of surgery, biochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology at the Medical College of Wisconsin, is the lead author of the study.
There is an urgent need for rapid, accurate and sensitive diagnostic platforms to confirm exposure to radiation and estimate the dose absorbed by individuals—whether that exposure is a result of radiological terrorism, nuclear power plant accident, or nuclear warfare. Clinical symptoms do not provide adequate diagnostic information to triage and treat life-threatening radiation injuries; furthermore, the United States has been found to be ill-suited to evaluate and triage large groups of patients with potential radiation exposure.
In this study, researchers examined the microbes found in rat feces before and after exposure to radiation. Changes were identified in the levels of 212 genomically distinct bacteria, of which 59 are found in humans. Those changes persisted at least 21 days following the exposure to radiation. One particular type of microbe, Proteobacteria, increased almost one-thousand fold four days following irradiation.
"If there were to be a radiological terrorism scenario, there could be hundreds of thousands of people that would be present around the ground zero area, and limited medical resources available to evaluate their exposure levels," explained Dr. Baker. "Analyzing microbial signatures in those patients would be a non-invasive way to obtain results in a timely fashion, and allow us to commit resources to patients in need of intervention."
The study was funded and data generated with US federal funds from the NIH Human Microbiome Project, the Common Fund, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases grant 1R01AI080363, and from grants from Tricorder Diagnostics and the Foundation for Heart Science.
The PhyloChip™ assay, developed by Second Genome, was utilized in this study to examine specific bacterial taxa.
Other authors of the study include Vy Lam, Ph.D.; John E. Moulder, Ph.D.; Nita H. Salzman, M.D., Ph.D., the Medical College of Wisconsin; and Eric A. Dubinsky, Ph.D.; and Gary L. Andersen, Ph.D.; from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. Dr. Andersen has an affiliation with Second Genome. Dr. Baker has an affiliation with Tricorder Diagnostics and the Foundation for Heart Science. The other authors report no such affiliation.
Maureen Mack | EurekAlert!
How cancer metastasis happens: Researchers reveal a key mechanism
19.01.2018 | Weill Cornell Medicine
Researchers identify new way to unmask melanoma cells to the immune system
17.01.2018 | Duke University Medical Center
On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.
We carry smartphones in our pockets, the streets are dotted with semi-autonomous cars, but in the research laboratory experiments are still being designed by...
What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...
For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.
Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...
At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.
No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.
Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...
08.01.2018 | Event News
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
19.01.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
19.01.2018 | Materials Sciences
19.01.2018 | Life Sciences