Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

An experimental Alzheimer's drug reverses genetic changes thought to spur the disease

04.05.2016

Aging takes its toll on the brain, and the cells of the hippocampus--a brain region with circuitry crucial to learning and memory--are particularly vulnerable to changes that can lead to Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline. With the hope of counteracting the changes that can lead to these two conditions, researchers at Rockefeller University and their colleagues have begun examining the effects of a drug known to affect this circuitry.

In new research described recently in Molecular Psychiatry, a team led by Ana Pereira, Instructor in Clinical Medicine in Bruce McEwen's laboratory found that the drug, riluzole, is capable of reversing key genetic changes associated with these conditions.


After treatment with riluzole, the brains of old rats showed more of a transporter molecule that removes excess glutamate, (green fluorescence, right) as compared to untreated rats (left).

Credit: Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology at The Rockefeller University/Molecular Psychiatry

"In aging and Alzheimer's, the chemical signal glutamate can accumulate between neurons, damaging the circuitry," Pereira says. "When we treated rats with riluzole, we saw a suite of changes. Perhaps most significantly, expression of molecules responsible for clearing excess glutamate returned to more youthful levels."

Previous work in McEwen's lab by Pereira has shown that the drug prompted structural changes in rats' neurons that prevent the memory loss often seen in old animals. Pereira is currently testing riluzole for the first time in Alzheimer's patients in a clinical trial at the Rockefeller University Hospital.

Glutamate clean up

Generally, glutamate is released to excite other neurons and doesn't linger in the spaces between them. As we age, though, the system gets a little leaky and glutamate can build up in these intercellular spaces.

This happens in part when neurons make less and less of the transporter molecule responsible for removing excess glutamate. When it accumulates, this essential neurotransmitter can cause big problems, damaging or killing neurons and so contributing to Alzheimer's disease, and other disorders.

Pereira and co-first author Jason Gray, a postdoc in the lab sought to better understand the molecular vulnerabilities of an aging glutamate system and riluzole's effect on it.

"The essence is we used a drug known to modulate glutamate, and when we gave it to old rats, we saw it reversed many of the changes that begin in middle age in the hippocampus," Gray says. "We saw a similar pattern when we compared the riluzole-induced changes to data from Alzheimer's patients--in a number of key pathways in the hippocampus, the drug produced an effect opposing that of the disease."

The drug, it turns out, modifies the activity of certain genes in an aged animal to resemble that of a younger rat. For example, the researchers found that the expression of a gene called EAAT2, which has been linked to Alzheimer's and is known to play a role in removing excess glutamate from nerve fibers, declines as the animals age. However, in rats treated with riluzole this gene's activity was brought back to its youthful levels.

New targets for treatments?

In addition to its potential ability to allay memory loss and cognitive decline, riluzole is attractive as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's. The drug is already being used to treat another neurological disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and is therefore considered relatively safe. In Pereira's ongoing clinical trial, patients with Alzheimer's disease have thus far been treated with either the drug or a placebo, and have been undergoing tests to help determine whether their brain functions have been improved.

"We hope to use a medication to break the cycle of toxicity by which glutamate can damage the neurons that use it as a neurotransmitter, and our studies so far suggest that riluzole may be able to accomplish this," Pereira says. "We found that in addition to recovering the expression of EAAT2, the drug restored genes critical for neural communication and plasticity, both of which decline with aging and even more significantly in Alzheimer's disease."

The findings also help to lay the groundwork for further study of glutamate transporters as potential targets for treating both conditions.

Media Contact

Katherine Fenz
kfenz@rockefeller.edu
212-327-7913

 @rockefelleruniv

http://www.rockefeller.edu 

Katherine Fenz | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: genes genetic changes glutamate memory loss neurons riluzole

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology
07.12.2016 | Nanyang Technological University

nachricht How to turn white fat brown
07.12.2016 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Silicon solar cell of ISFH yields 25% efficiency with passivating POLO contacts

08.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

The balancing act: An enzyme that links endocytosis to membrane recycling

07.12.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>