Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

All-Clear for Nonlinear Optical Imaging

24.07.2014

High power femto-second laser pulses used for in vivo nonlinear optical imaging can form DNA products, which may lead to carcinogenesis. A modified cancer risk model now shows that the cancer risk is negligible above that due to regular sun exposure.

In the field of biomedical imaging, nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging is gaining importance for applications such as visualizing collagen, elastin and cellular metabolic activity. The nonlinear processes needed for NLO imaging like multi-photon excitation (MPE) and second harmonic generation (SHG), require an extremely high concentration of NIR photons to excite biological fluorophores.

While conventional lasers could lead to overheating and tissue destruction, femto-second (fs) pulsed lasers conveniently provide the high photon fluxes. The harmful effects are restricted to the irradiated tissue and do not have long term effects. Yet, studies have shown that MPE processes can form UV photoproducts from DNA such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) which may eventually lead to carcinogenesis. Thus, how save are NLO biopsies?

To evaluate these safety aspects, a team from Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam and from Utrecht University (The Netherlands) estimated the risk of squamous cell cancer induction in skin following nonlinear optical imaging. First, it had to be considered, that CPDs are routinely produced in human skin by the UV component of sunlight – exposure to sunlight already causes a certain risk for skin carcinogenesis, especially squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Therefore, the scientists decided not to evaluate an absolute carcinogenic risk due to NLO imaging, but to estimate the relative carcinogenic risk of SCC from NLO imaging above the risk due to regular sunlight exposure.

As a base, they chose an established carcinogenic risk model for humans, which estimates risk from exposure to continuous wave (CW) laser. This model was modified and expanded. Instead of CW UV laser radiation, the cumulative radiation received due to pulsed NIR wavelengths from nonlinear biopsies was considered. The derived model is unique because it assesses the risk of CPD related carcinogenesis due to both 2- and 3-photon effects.

To assess how effective NIR femto-second laser pulses are at inducing carcinogenic DNA lesions, the authors compared the levels of DNA mutations (CPDs) induced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells in vitro by pulsed NIR from NLO imaging with those induced by regular CW UV.

The newly derived risk model indicated that the increase in CPD-induced SCC risk from NLO biopsy is negligible above that from regular exposure to UV radiation in sunlight. The relative risk from 40 or more nonlinear biopsies over is notably higher, but this increase is still lower than the risk arising from sunbathing or having an outdoor profession.

However, it has to be considered that the risk could become significant if the NLO biopsies are performed without discretion, i.e. by using unnecessarily high energy fluence for imaging, performing too many scans over the same tissue site or carrying out excessive NLO biopsies. The authors conclude that it is necessary to delineate an efficient protocol for NLO biopsy in the clinic to ensure its efficacy as a diagnostic tool and also minimize possible long-term effects. (Text contributed by K. Maedefessel-Herrmann) 

See the original publication: Giju Thomas, Oleg Nadiarnykh, Johan van Voskuilen, Christopher L. Hoy, Hans C. Gerritsen, and Henricus J. C. M. Sterenborg, Estimating the risk of skin cancer induction following nonlinear optical imaging, J. Biophotonics 7:7, 492-505 (2014); DOI http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbio.201200207/pdf  

Regina Hagen | Wiley

Further reports about: Biophotonics DNA MPE NIR Nonlinear Optical biopsies biopsy carcinogenesis carcinogenic lasers processes skin sunlight

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New leukemia treatment offers hope
23.09.2016 | King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

nachricht Alzheimer’s: Cellular Mechanism Provides Explanation Model for Declining Memory Performance
21.09.2016 | Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen e.V. (DZNE)

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

Im Focus: Complex hardmetal tools out of the 3D printer

For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.

Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...

Im Focus: Launch of New Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing

At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.

In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...

Im Focus: New laser joining technologies at ‘K 2016’ trade fair

Every three years, the plastics industry gathers at K, the international trade fair for plastics and rubber in Düsseldorf. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will also be attending again and presenting many innovative technologies, such as for joining plastics and metals using ultrashort pulse lasers. From October 19 to 26, you can find the Fraunhofer ILT at the joint Fraunhofer booth SC01 in Hall 7.

K is the world’s largest trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. As in previous years, the organizers are expecting 3,000 exhibitors and more than...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Experts from industry and academia discuss the future mobile telecommunications standard 5G

23.09.2016 | Event News

ICPE in Graz for the seventh time

20.09.2016 | Event News

Using mathematical models to understand our brain

16.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Chains of nanogold – forged with atomic precision

23.09.2016 | Life Sciences

New leukemia treatment offers hope

23.09.2016 | Health and Medicine

Self-assembled nanostructures hit their target

23.09.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>