Many of these genes are also known to influence body fatness, obesity, and energy metabolism. Prior to the multi-institutional study, only four genes had been identified as contributing to the process.
The findings, which were reported in Nature Genetics, help to explain why girls who are obese tend to have earlier puberty: some of the same genes are involved in both outcomes. Early menarche, or the first menstrual cycle, is linked to a variety of chronic adulthood diseases, including breast cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes.
As a result of these discoveries, Demerath suggests that health care providers and other professionals pay particularly close attention to girls with a high risk of obesity (those who are overweight in childhood or who have a parental history of obesity) and intervene with them, as those girls are also genetically more susceptible to early menarche.
“Early menarche is caused by both genetics and environmental factors,” said Demerath. “We already knew that diet and physical exercise play a role in menarche, but now that we’ve identified more of the specific genes involved, this gives us clues about how to intervene on the process. By showing how hereditary and biological factors contribute to early menarche, we hope to one day allow health care providers to identify girls with increased risk of early menarche, and help them avoid the complications of early-onset puberty.”
In the large-scale, NIH-funded study, researchers from 104 institutions collected data from more than 100,000 women from the United States, Europe, and Australia. This includes women from the Twin Cities area enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Not only were researchers able to identify these new genes, but they also found that many of them play a role in body weight regulation or biological pathways related to fat metabolism. The study findings also suggest that menarche is a result of a complex range of biological processes.
Today, girls are menstruating earlier than ever before. In the mid-1900s, the average age of menarche was 14-15 years. The average age today is 12-13 years.
“We now know that hormone regulation, cell development, and other mechanisms are related to menarche,” said Demerath.
According to Demerath, the next step for researchers is to examine whether some of these genes also influence sexual development in males, whether the genes are related to general growth in size as well as development, the points in the life cycle when the genes are most powerfully expressed, and how environmental factors such as diet and physical activity can modify their effects.School of Public Health
Emily Jensen | EurekAlert!
Single-stranded DNA and RNA origami go live
15.12.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard
New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists
15.12.2017 | Louisiana State University
DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.
Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...
MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.
Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...
Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...
Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
07.12.2017 | Event News
15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences
15.12.2017 | Life Sciences