Many of these genes are also known to influence body fatness, obesity, and energy metabolism. Prior to the multi-institutional study, only four genes had been identified as contributing to the process.
The findings, which were reported in Nature Genetics, help to explain why girls who are obese tend to have earlier puberty: some of the same genes are involved in both outcomes. Early menarche, or the first menstrual cycle, is linked to a variety of chronic adulthood diseases, including breast cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes.
As a result of these discoveries, Demerath suggests that health care providers and other professionals pay particularly close attention to girls with a high risk of obesity (those who are overweight in childhood or who have a parental history of obesity) and intervene with them, as those girls are also genetically more susceptible to early menarche.
“Early menarche is caused by both genetics and environmental factors,” said Demerath. “We already knew that diet and physical exercise play a role in menarche, but now that we’ve identified more of the specific genes involved, this gives us clues about how to intervene on the process. By showing how hereditary and biological factors contribute to early menarche, we hope to one day allow health care providers to identify girls with increased risk of early menarche, and help them avoid the complications of early-onset puberty.”
In the large-scale, NIH-funded study, researchers from 104 institutions collected data from more than 100,000 women from the United States, Europe, and Australia. This includes women from the Twin Cities area enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Not only were researchers able to identify these new genes, but they also found that many of them play a role in body weight regulation or biological pathways related to fat metabolism. The study findings also suggest that menarche is a result of a complex range of biological processes.
Today, girls are menstruating earlier than ever before. In the mid-1900s, the average age of menarche was 14-15 years. The average age today is 12-13 years.
“We now know that hormone regulation, cell development, and other mechanisms are related to menarche,” said Demerath.
According to Demerath, the next step for researchers is to examine whether some of these genes also influence sexual development in males, whether the genes are related to general growth in size as well as development, the points in the life cycle when the genes are most powerfully expressed, and how environmental factors such as diet and physical activity can modify their effects.School of Public Health
Emily Jensen | EurekAlert!
Symbiotic bacteria: from hitchhiker to beetle bodyguard
28.04.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
28.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences