Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Taking proteins for a ride

29.06.2009
A recently discovered structure in plant cells functions to transport proteins and glycans around the cell

Cells produce thousands of proteins that are essential for life, but the proteins are of no use unless they can be delivered to the right places. Now, Ken Matsuoka and co-workers at the RIKEN Plant Science Center in Yokohama, Kyushu University in Fukuoka and Niigata University have discovered a subcellular structure in plants that carries proteins and glycans to the correct locations, especially outside of the cell1.

The newly identified delivery structure arises from another substructure in the cell called the Golgi apparatus. If one imagines a cell as a factory producing proteins, the Golgi apparatus can be thought of as the sorting office, where proteins are organized and packaged into bundles ready for their journey around the body.

The protein bundles, packed together with lipids, are called transport vesicles. One of their functions is to travel to the cell membrane and secrete proteins from the cell—a process called exocytosis.

Plants, in particular, have complicated ‘post-Golgi’ compartments that influence vesicles during the last stages of exocytosis. “It is not yet clear whether these compartments are the sole elements in the late secretory pathway of plants, how they interact, or how they are involved in exocytosis,” says Matsuoka.

Matsuoka and co-workers monitored the movement of vesicles in tobacco plant cells, by fluorescent tagging of a known vesicle protein called secretory carrier membrane protein 2 (SCAMP2). They found that SCAMP2 accumulates in the Golgi network, but not in known post-Golgi compartments. Instead, it appears in clusters of between 5 and 12 vesicles, each around 50 to 100 nanometers in diameter.

The researchers named these new structures ‘secretory vesicle clusters’, or SVCs. The SVCs can move separately from the Golgi network, and are often seen tethered to cell walls, where they are probably involved in secreting proteins and glycans from the cell.

Furthermore, the SVCs appear to play an important role in cell division. SVCs in dividing cells were targeted towards the cell plate—a thick wall of glycans and proteins that forms down the centre of a cell before the cell splits in two.

The researchers found SVCs in Arabidopsis and rice plants as well as tobacco. Therefore the SVCs represent a standard delivery mechanism supplying cells with the necessary ingredients for maintaining life.

“We are now isolating the SVCs to analyze their constituents,” says Matsuoka. “[Then] we will be able to analyze the molecular mechanisms of SVC transport and for tethering vesicles together in SVCs.”

Reference

1. Toyooka, K., Goto, Y., Asatsuma, S., Koizumi, M., Mitsui, T. & Matsuoka, K. A mobile secretory vesicle cluster involved in mass transport from the Golgi to the plant cell exterior. The Plant Cell 21, 1212–1229 (2009).

The corresponding author for this highlight is based at the RIKEN Gene Discovery Research Group

Saeko Okada | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.rikenresearch.riken.jp/research/730/
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New risk factors for anxiety disorders
24.02.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
24.02.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>