Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Sea urchin protein provides insights into self-assembly of skeletal structures

08.06.2017

Researchers from NYU Dentistry are investigating a protein found inside the spicules of a sea urchin embryo to understand what makes these proteins such efficient 'brick organizers'

Calcium carbonate, or CaCO3, comprises more than 4% of the earth's crust. Its most common natural forms are chalk, limestone, and marble, produced by the sedimentation of the shells of small fossilized snails, shellfish, and coral over millions of years.


This is a scanning electron microscopy image of a calcite crystal generated in the presence of the sea urchin protein rSpSM50 on a silicon wafer showing organized nanotexturing on exposed surfaces.

Credit: NYU Dentistry: Evans

New York University College of Dentistry (NYU Dentistry) researchers are studying how nature creates three-dimensional CaCO3 inorganic/organic based materials to form seashells, invertebrate exoskeletons, and vertebrate bone, dentine, and enamel.

John Evans, DMD, PhD, a professor in NYU Dentistry's Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, oversees a research group focusing on the study of proteins that modulate the formation of biominerals, which in turn create new composite materials with unique properties, such as increased fracture and puncture resistances.

In a paper recently published in Biochemistry, Gaurav Jain, PhD, a postdoc in Dr. Evans's lab and coauthor of "A model sea urchin spicule matrix protein, rSpSM50, is a hydrogelator that modifies and organizes the mineralization process," looked at how the CaCO3 matrix is organized inside a sea urchin spicule (See figure 1). At first, these spicules are nothing more than chalk, but when combined with sea urchin proteins, they form tiny stacks of "bricks," creating a structure that provides some of the toughest defense against predators and harsh ocean conditions.

"Primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) inside a sea urchin embryo deposits amorphous CaCO3 within the matrix of spicule proteins where these bricks are shaped into layers of calcium carbonate crystals," notes Dr. Jain. "However, the functional and assembly capabilities of individual spicule matrix proteins aren't clear. We are currently investigating one such protein found inside the spicules of a sea urchin embryo to understand what makes these proteins such efficient 'brick organizers.'"

The researchers looked at SM50, one of the most abundant and well-studied proteins found inside these spicules. They found that a recombinant version of the SM50 protein, rSpSM50, is a highly aggregation-prone protein that forms tiny jelly-like structures called hydrogels in solution. These 'jellies' capture tiny mineral nanoparticles and organize them into crystalline 'bricks.' Moreover, rSpSM50 causes surface texturing and forms randomly interconnected porous channels within these crystals.

"What is unique about rSpSM50 is that it fosters the formation and organization of two different forms of calcium carbonate -- calcite and vaterite within the 'jellies' themselves, inducing fracture resistance to the overall structure," said Dr. Jain.

Researchers used a specific type of titration method that revealed the details about very early events in the spicule formation.

"rSpSM50 turns out to be a really important piece of the puzzle, as it slows the formation kinetics but neither stabilizes nor destabilizes the extremely tiny mineral particles that ultimately form these bricks," says coauthor Martin Pendola, PhD.

CaCo3 has always been a man's favorite construction material to make primitive tools, musical instruments, and craftware since the beginning of civilization. In modern times, CaCO3 is the most widely used mineral in the paper, plastics, paints and coatings industries both as a filler -- and due to its special white color -- as a coating pigment.

"Our current research, funded by U.S. Department of Energy, will enable scientists to better understand the mineralization and assembly process crucial to spicule formation in sea urchin," said Dr. Evans. "Our ultimate goal is to determine the molecular properties of these proteins that allow matrices to assemble, mineralize, and participate in the formation of naturally occurring organic/inorganic skeletal structures. The hope is that the comprehensive understanding of spicule proteins will enable the development of tunable fracture resistant materials that one day will find its use in developing lightweight 'armor' and 'sturdier' dental composites."

###

Contributors:

**Gaurav Jain1; **Martin Pendola1; Yu-Chieh Huang2; Denis Gebauer2; and John Spencer Evans1

1. Laboratory for Chemical Physics, Center for Skeletal and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, NY, NY, USA. 2. Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Universität Konstanz, Universitätstrasse 10, Konstanz D- 78457, Germany.

**Both authors contributed equally to this work

Acknowledgments: AFM imaging was conducted at the Molecular Cytology Core Facility, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York. Flow cytometry studies were conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Columbia University, New York. This report represents contribution number 83 from the Laboratory for Chemical Physics, New York University.

Funding sources: Portions of this research (recombinant protein synthesis, LM, flow cytometry, AFM, SEM, FIB, TEM) were supported by the Life Sciences Division, U.S. Army Research Office, under award W911NF-16-1-0262 (JSE). The potentiometric experiments were supported by the Zukunftskoleg of the University of Konstanz (DG).

About NYU College of Dentistry

Founded in 1865, New York University College of Dentistry is the third oldest and the largest dental school in the US, educating more than 8 percent of all dentists. NYU College of Dentistry has a significant global reach with a highly diverse student body. Visit http://dental.nyu.edu for more.

Media Contact

christopher James
christopher.james@nyu.edu
212-998-6876

 @nyuniversity

http://www.nyu.edu 

Christopher James | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: Dentistry NYU calcium carbonate proteins skeletal structures

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht More genes are active in high-performance maize
19.01.2018 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht How plants see light
19.01.2018 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Artificial agent designs quantum experiments

On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.

We carry smartphones in our pockets, the streets are dotted with semi-autonomous cars, but in the research laboratory experiments are still being designed by...

Im Focus: Scientists decipher key principle behind reaction of metalloenzymes

So-called pre-distorted states accelerate photochemical reactions too

What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...

Im Focus: The first precise measurement of a single molecule's effective charge

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.

Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...

Im Focus: Paradigm shift in Paris: Encouraging an holistic view of laser machining

At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.

No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...

Im Focus: Room-temperature multiferroic thin films and their properties

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.

Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

10th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Münster, 10-11 April 2018

08.01.2018 | Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Let the good tubes roll

19.01.2018 | Materials Sciences

How cancer metastasis happens: Researchers reveal a key mechanism

19.01.2018 | Health and Medicine

Meteoritic stardust unlocks timing of supernova dust formation

19.01.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>