Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the blood that occurs primarily in young children. It's frequently associated with mutations or chromosomal abnormalities that arise during embryonic or fetal development. Working with mice, researchers led by Rodney DeKoter identified two key genes that appear essential in the prevention of B cell ALL, the most common form of ALL in children. The study is published online in Blood, the Journal of the American Society of Hematology.
In the study, mice were generated with mutations in two genes called PU.1 and Spi-B. Mutation of either PU.1 or Spi-B individually had little effect. Unexpectedly, mutation of both genes resulted in 100% of the mice developing B cell ALL. Eighty percent of ALL cases in children are of the B cell type. The study found PU.1 and Spi-B have unanticipated functional redundancy as "tumor suppressor" genes that prevent leukemia.
"You can think of PU.1 and Spi-B proteins as brakes on a car. If the main brake (PU.1) fails, you still have the emergency brake (Spi-B). However, if both sets of brakes fail, the car speeds out of control," explains DeKoter, an associate professor in the Department of Microbiology & Immunology at Western's Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry. "And uncontrolled cell division is an important cause of leukemia."
PU.1 is an essential regulator in the development of the immune system, and mutations in this gene have been previously associated with human ALL. DeKoter hopes these studies will ultimately lead to improved, less toxic, therapies for childhood leukemia. Currently, about 80% of ALL patients go into complete remission when treated with aggressive chemotherapy.
This research was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
DeKoter is also affiliated with the Centre for Human Immunology at Western and the Children's Health Research Institute. The lead author on the paper is Kristen Sokalski, a 2011 BMSc graduate with an honours specialization in Biochemistry of Infection & Immunity. Stephen Li and Marek Gruca, both MSc students supervised by DeKoter, and Ian Welch and Heather Cadieux-Pitre of Western's Veterinary Services also worked on the project.
Kathy Wallis | EurekAlert!
Researchers develop eco-friendly, 4-in-1 catalyst
25.04.2017 | Brown University
Transfecting cells gently – the LZH presents a GNOME prototype at the Labvolution 2017
25.04.2017 | Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
25.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
25.04.2017 | Materials Sciences
25.04.2017 | Life Sciences