Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The hormone of darkness: melatonin could hurt memory formation at night

19.11.2007
Professor Gregg Roman and UH team discover nighttime 'malfunction' of biological clock

What do you do when a naturally occurring hormone in your body turns against you? What do you do when that same hormone – melatonin – is a popular supplement you take to help you sleep? A University of Houston professor and his team of researchers may have some answers.

Gregg W. Roman, assistant professor in the department of biology and biochemistry at UH, describes his team’s findings in a paper titled “Melatonin Suppresses Nighttime Memory Formation in Zebrafish,” appearing Nov. 16 in Science, the world’s leading journal of original scientific research, global news and commentary.

Frequently called “the hormone of darkness,” melatonin is a hormone the body produces that may regulate patterns of sleeping and awakening in humans. In almost all organisms tested, this antioxidant’s natural levels are high during the night and low during the day. In addition to what the body produces naturally, many people also take melatonin supplements to fight jet lag, balance out seasonal affect disorder and regulate nighttime dementia.

... more about:
»Melatonin »formation »hormone »memories »night

Roman says, however, that melatonin could actually be hurting you at night, finding in a study with zebrafish (Danio rerio) that melatonin directly inhibits memory formation.

“This work is about the mechanism by which the biological clock controls the formation of new memories,” Roman said. “We were interested in the circadian control – the day-night cycle control – of learning and memory formation. We found zebrafish are capable of learning very well during their active phase during the day, but learn very poorly at night during their sleep or quiet phase.”

The experiments were performed using zebrafish for several reasons. They’re small and breed in large numbers (thereby being less expensive to use), and they are diurnal, having the same activity rhythms as people. Zebrafish are most active during the day and less active at night, whereas many other vertebrate model systems, such as rodents, are nocturnal. Roman reasons that if you are interested in how the biological clock regulates cognitive function in humans, you should use a model system that reacts to the clock the same way people do.

More than two years worth of work, including the discovery that the ability to learn and remember was controlled by an endogenous (or internal) clock originating within the zebrafish, led Roman and his colleagues to hypothesize that melatonin may be responsible for poor learning and memory formation during the night. In order to test whether melatonin was involved in inhibiting nighttime learning and memory formation, they treated the zebrafish during the day with this hormone to see how the fish performed. Interestingly, melatonin failed to affect learning, but dramatically inhibited the formation of new memories, with the melatonin-treated fish resembling fish trained during the night in a test for 24-hour memory.

“The next step was to inhibit melatonin signaling during the night with a melatonin receptor antagonist and test for effects on memory formation,” Roman said. “It was tremendous – the results were, excuse the expression, like night and day. We saw dramatic improvements in nighttime memory formation by inhibiting melatonin signaling, indicating that the reason the zebrafish did not form memories at night was because of the melatonin hormone.”

Next, with the pineal gland being the primary source of melatonin in fish and in people, Roman’s student Oliver Rawashdeh removed this gland from the fish and found they could now form memories at high levels even during the night. Removing this melatonin-producing gland allowed the researchers to alleviate the hormone’s negative side effects, further demonstrating that melatonin inhibits the formation of new memories during the night.

With these findings, Roman hopes to be able to retain the beneficial effects of melatonin’s antioxidant properties. Such benefits include fighting free radical damage to slow some forms of neurodegeneration, such as in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, and stopping DNA damage, which has potential to act as a preventative against cancer. And, since the positive antioxidant effect is direct and independent of receptor signaling, there is hope that removing the melatonin receptor signaling will combat only this hormone’s negative effects on cognitive function.

Additionally, Roman said that inhibiting melatonin signaling with receptor antagonists may help with a large number of nighttime cognitive tasks, helping such people as students studying for finals, airplane pilots, ER physicians and night-shift workers. Roman also thinks that a natural role of melatonin may be to facilitate the storage of memories made during the day and that more studies are required to understand the ultimate role melatonin has in memory formation.

“The value of melatonin as a supplement is largely due to its antioxidant properties,” Roman said. “The use of melatonin receptor antagonists will not affect this attribute, but may alleviate an important side effect on nighttime cognitive function.”

In other words, a ‘best of both worlds’ scenario could result, taking advantage of melatonin’s antioxidant benefits while improving nighttime memory formation that is now inhibited by it.

Roman’s team at UH for this breakthrough study includes Gregory M. Cahill, associate professor of biology and biochemistry, and two of their students and research assistants, Oliver Rawashdeh and Nancy Hernandez de Borsetti.

Lisa Merkl | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uh.edu
http://www.uh.edu/news-events/

Further reports about: Melatonin formation hormone memories night

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>