Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

High and mighty: first common height gene identified by researchers behind 'obesity gene' finding

04.09.2007
Whilst we all know that tall parents are more likely to have tall children, scientists have been unable to identify any common genes that make people taller than others. Now, however, scientists have identified the first gene, known as HMGA2, a common variant of which directly influences height.

The difference in height between a person carrying two copies of the variant and a person carrying no copies is just under 1cm in height, so does not on its own explain the range of heights across the population. However, the researchers believe the findings may prove important.

Previous studies have suggested that, unlike conditions such as obesity, which is caused by a mix of genetic and environmental factors – so called "nature and nurture" – 90% of normal variation in human height is due to genetic factors rather than, for example, diet. However, other than very rare gene variants that affect height in only a small number of people, no common gene variants have until now been identified.

The research was led by Dr Tim Frayling from the Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, Professor Mark McCarthy from the University of Oxford and Dr Joel Hirschhorn from the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT in Cambridge, US. Dr Frayling and Professor McCarthy were also part of a Wellcome Trust-funded study team that discovered the first common gene linked to obesity in April this year.

Using data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, the largest study ever undertaken into the genetics underlying common diseases, and the Diabetes Genetics Initiative, in the US, the researchers conducted a genome-wide study of DNA samples from 5,000 people. The findings – that variations in the gene HMGA2 make some people taller than others – are published online today in the journal Nature Genetics.

Each of us carries two copies of each gene, one from our mother and one from our father. However, each copy can be a variant, or "allele" – in the case of the HMGA2 gene, a "tall" version and a "short" version. The researchers found that as many as 25% of white Europeans carried two "tall" versions of this particular gene, making them approximately 1cm taller than the 25% of people who carry two "short" versions.

"Height is a typical 'polygenic trait' – in other words, many genes contribute towards making us taller or shorter," explains Dr Frayling. "Clearly, our results do not explain why one person will be 6'5" and another only 4'10". This is just the first of many that will be found – possibly as many as several hundred."

The exact role that HMGA2 has in growth is unclear, but the researchers believe it is most likely in increased cell production. This may have implications for the development of cancer as tumours occur due to unregulated cell growth. Previous studies have shown an association between height and certain cancers: taller people are statistically more likely to be at risk from cancers, including those found in the prostate, bladder and lung.

"There appears to be a definite correlation between height and some diseases," explains Dr Mike Weedon, lead author on the study. "For example, there are associations between shortness and slightly increased risks of conditions such as heart disease. Similarly, tall people are more at risk from certain cancers and possibly osteoporosis."

Dr Frayling believes that the study has major implications for helping scientists understand how common variations in DNA in the human the genome actually affect us, especially in relation to growth and development.

"Even though improved nutrition means that each generation is getting successively taller, variation in height within a population is almost entirely influenced by our genes," says Dr Frayling. "This fact, coupled with the ease of measuring height, means that height can act as a model trait, allowing us to explore in detail the influence that the genome actually has on our general make-up, not just disease risk."

In addition to being a textbook example of a complex trait, height is a common reason children are referred to specialists. Although short stature by itself typically does not signify cause for concern, delayed growth can sometimes reflect a more serious underlying medical condition.

“By defining the genes that normally affect stature, we might someday be able to better reassure parents that their child’s height is within the range predicted by their genes, rather than a consequence of disease,” said Dr Hirschhorn from the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT.

Craig Brierley | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wellcome.ac.uk

Further reports about: Broad Institute Condition EXPLAIN Frayling HMGA2 finding obesity variant

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Modern genetic sequencing tools give clearer picture of how corals are related
17.08.2017 | University of Washington

nachricht The irresistible fragrance of dying vinegar flies
16.08.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Gold shines through properties of nano biosensors

17.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Greenland ice flow likely to speed up: New data assert glaciers move over sediment, which gets more slippery as it gets wetter

17.08.2017 | Earth Sciences

Mars 2020 mission to use smart methods to seek signs of past life

17.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>