Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Cells use 'noise' to make cell-fate decisions

23.03.2007
Electrical noise, like the crackle heard on AM radio when lightning strikes nearby, is a nuisance that wreaks havoc on electronic devices. But within cells, a similar kind of biochemical "noise" is beneficial, helping cells transform from one state to another, according to a new study led by a UT Southwestern Medical Center researcher.

Dr. Gürol Süel, assistant professor of pharmacology, said his research and that of his colleagues published today in the journal Science represents "a new paradigm," suggesting that rather than being bad for biology, cellular noise might have an important function, such as prompting stem cells to transform into a specific tissue type.

Electronic noise is an unwanted signal characteristic of all electrical circuits, typically caused by random fluctuations in the electric current passing through the components of a circuit. Similarly, within each living cell there are myriad "genetic circuits," each composed of a distinct set of biochemical reactions that contribute to some biological process. Randomness in those reactions contributes to biological noise, technically referred to as stochastic fluctuations.

"Noise in biological systems is a fact of life," said Dr. Süel, a member of the systems biology division of the Cecil H. and Ida Green Comprehensive Center for Molecular, Computational and Systems Biology at UT Southwestern. "Even though each cell may have the same set of genes turned on – the same hard-wired genetic circuit – there will still be slight variations in the amount of the various proteins those genes produce, some fluctuation in the amount of each circuit component. No two cells are alike in terms of their chemical composition."

Conventional scientific thinking has been that the random nature of such fluctuations within cells interferes with the reliable operation of biological systems. However, Dr. Süel's research team hypothesized that noise in one particular genetic circuit might be beneficial, linked to a process that controls cell fate.

To determine the biological role for noise, the researchers analyzed a genetic circuit that controls the transformation of bacteria cells from one state to another. This process, called differentiation, is akin to that used by human stem cells to change into a specific tissue type.

In a series of theoretical calculations and actual experiments, the researchers found that the particular circuit they investigated appears to have evolved in this bacterium to amplify cellular noise. Dr. Süel and his colleagues determined that by dampening the noise level within the bacterial cells, they could prevent the cells' transformation between states, essentially "tuning" cellular behavior.

"The amplitude of cellular noise correlates with the probability of triggering differentiation," Dr. Süel said. "This is experimental evidence that a genetic circuit utilizes noise to drive a biological process."

Typically, scientists examine genes and proteins individually to try to determine their functions within a cell. However, Dr. Süel said that's like examining each capacitor or switch in an electrical circuit in an attempt to understand the function of the electrical device in which the circuit is housed.

"Our research provides a systems-level view of how gene circuits work as a whole," he said.

Dr. Süel said the next step in his research would be to uncover the theoretical design principles of genetic circuits and what role interactions between distinct circuits play in regulating complex biological processes, such the differentiation of multipotent stem cells.

Dr. Süel, who earned his doctorate in molecular biophysics from UT Southwestern, carried out much of the work for the Science paper while a postdoctoral research fellow at the California Institute of Technology. He joined the UT Southwestern faculty in November and is an Endowed Scholar in Biomedical Research.

Other co-authors on the Science paper are Rajan Kulkarni and senior author Michael Elowitz, both of Caltech; Jonathan Dworkin of Columbia University; and Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo of the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya in Spain.

The work was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health, the Searle Scholars Program and the Human Frontier Science Program.

Amanda Siegfried | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.utsouthwestern.edu

Further reports about: Fluctuation Science Süel biological process biological system

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A Map of the Cell’s Power Station
18.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht On the way to developing a new active ingredient against chronic infections
18.08.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New gene catalog of ocean microbiome reveals surprises

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Astrophysicists explain the mysterious behavior of cosmic rays

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

AI implications: Engineer's model lays groundwork for machine-learning device

18.08.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>