Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Loss of a universal tRNA feature reported

09.02.2007
Scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute (VBI) report in the Journal of Bacteriology that two alphaproteobacteria lack the universal extra guanylate nucleotide typically found in the transfer RNA molecule tRNAHis.

tRNAs are the molecules responsible for decoding sequence information specified by messenger RNA molecules, information which is ultimately encoded by the DNA template.

tRNAHis is the specific tRNA that assists in incorporating the amino acid histidine into new proteins. Histidine residues make essential contributions to protein structure as well as the catalytic mechanisms of enzymes and must be reliably incorporated during the process of translation.

Until now, bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic tRNAs have always been found with an extra guanylate residue at the 5' end of the tRNA molecule. The scientists, led by Kelly Williams of VBI, have shown that tRNAs carrying the amino acid histidine in the alphaproteobacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti and Caulobacter crescentus apparently lack the universal guanylate residue.

... more about:
»RNA »alphaproteobacteria »guanylate »tRNA »tRNAHis

Kelly Williams, research investigator at VBI, remarked: "The loss of a universal and apparently ancient tRNA feature in two members of the alphaproteobacteria was particularly surprising as it represents a radical departure from previously known identity rules for the histidine-carrying tRNAs." He added: "This result implies that tRNA recognition by the enzyme adding histidine to tRNA differs considerably from similar enzymes in other organisms. We have indeed been able to detect an impact on particular regions of the histidyl-tRNA synthetase that are critical for recognizing tRNA."

The researchers used bioinformatic tools such as a computer script – specifically written by the group – to probe the tRNA genes in the alphaproteobacteria group. Examination of the corrected tRNAHis sequences revealed that a group of alphaproteobacteria fails to encode a G (guanylate) at the -1 position of the tRNA as all other bacteria do. Amplification and tRNA sequencing approaches were used to confirm the findings.

Sinorhizobium meliloti and Caulobacter crescentus are members of the alphaproteobacteria, a group of diverse organisms whose members have successfully adopted different lifestyle and energy-yielding strategies in the course of evolution. The organisms are members of a specific group of alphaproteobacteria that comprises the Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales, Caulobacterales, Parvularculales and Pelagibacter.

Dieter Söll, Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry in the Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale University, commented: "The observed absence of the extra guanylate in tRNAHis is a unique case of divergence from a highly conserved ancient tRNA recognition mechanism by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. It will be of special interest to examine if the loss of this tRNA feature has resulted from the presence of an RNase P enzyme that is no longer capable of catalyzing abnormal cleavage at the -1 position in the tRNAHis precursor. It will also be revealing to see how different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have adapted to discriminate between their cognate or related substrates and the now less distinctive tRNAHis."

Barry Whyte | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://vwww.vt.edu

Further reports about: RNA alphaproteobacteria guanylate tRNA tRNAHis

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht MicroRNA helps cancer evade immune system
19.09.2017 | Salk Institute

nachricht Ruby: Jacobs University scientists are collaborating in the development of a new type of chocolate
18.09.2017 | Jacobs University Bremen gGmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

Im Focus: Fast, convenient & standardized: New lab innovation for automated tissue engineering & drug

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems Holding GmbH about commercial use of a multi-well tissue plate for automated and reliable tissue engineering & drug testing.

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems...

Im Focus: Silencing bacteria

HZI researchers pave the way for new agents that render hospital pathogens mute

Pathogenic bacteria are becoming resistant to common antibiotics to an ever increasing degree. One of the most difficult germs is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a...

Im Focus: Artificial Enzymes for Hydrogen Conversion

Scientists from the MPI for Chemical Energy Conversion report in the first issue of the new journal JOULE.

Cell Press has just released the first issue of Joule, a new journal dedicated to sustainable energy research. In this issue James Birrell, Olaf Rüdiger,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

New quantum phenomena in graphene superlattices

19.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A simple additive to improve film quality

19.09.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>