And now, while studying the mechanism behind RNAi researchers at Oxford and Helsinki University have discovered that the functional core of a key enzyme (enzymes are proteins which promote biochemical reactions in the body) involved in the formation of RNAi molecules is striking similar to an enzyme involved in gene expression.
The research, published in the journal "Public Library of Science Biology", supports the idea that the two enzymes have a common ancestor and gives weight to the theory that life started as self-replicating RNA molecules in a RNA world (as opposed to the present world where molecules of DNA are the basis of life).
In fact, we live in a DNA world, as genes are segments of DNA, and it is the information contained in the genes of an organism that, when translated into proteins, makes up the blueprint for the body structure and function. This process, the expression of genes into proteins, is comprised of two steps: the first by which genetic information in DNA is converted into RNA and the second which is the synthesis of proteins based on the information/instructions contained in the newly made RNA (DNA ? RNA ? protein).
But there is a dent in this apparently perfect process. In fact, for a long time scientists have been puzzled why approximately 32% of the human genome/DNA, although transformed into RNA, does not lead to protein production (DNA ? RNA ? no protein)? So why would this huge amount of “junk” RNA keep being formed instead of being eliminated during evolution? After all, a basic rule of life is that any reaction that costs energy and is not advantageous for the individual must be eliminated. What recent research unveiled is that RNA is a much more multifaceted molecule than previously thought, and some of that “junk” RNA actually plays an important role in gene regulation. One such example is RNAi, a RNA that is capable of blocking the activity of specific genes.
And it was while studying the mechanisms behind RNAi, that Paula S. Salgado, Jonathan M. Grimes and colleagues discovered that the functional core of an enzyme involved in the formation of short RNAi molecules from other RNA molecules (RNA? RNA), was remarkably similar to the one that mediates the formation of RNA from DNA (DNA ? RNA) during the first step of gene expression. This striking similarity suggested a common ancestor and further analysis seemed to indicate that the enzyme involved in the RNAi process had appeared before and so would probably be more similar structurally to the common ancestor.
These results support the idea of life starting in a (RNA) world where self-replicating (RNA?RNA) multifunctional RNA molecules evolved (as well as the enzymes mediating the process) into the present situation where genetic information is contained instead on DNA. In fact, although RNA is chemically similar to DNA it has, as the “originater” of life, two major advantages over the latter molecule: 1- it is easily synthesised from non-complex blocks so it had higher possibility of occurring spontaneously and 2 - it is easy to imagine that it could evolve into DNA, which by being a much more stable molecule would then take over. Furthermore, the idea of a primitive RNA world, if proved, could solve one of biggest conundrums on the origin of life: if life needs both DNA as a source of genetic information and proteins to drive life’s chemical reactions how could have one appeared first without the other? Some scientists believe that the answer lies in this ancient RNA molecule which was capable of supporting life reactions and also contained life’s genetic blueprint and whose existence seems to be consistent with the findings of Salgado, Grimes and colleagues.
In this way, Salgado’s work sheds light not only on the mechanism behind this extremely interesting and important process that is RNAi, but can also help to understand better how life began on earth.Piece researched and written by:
Catarina Amorim | alfa
How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH
A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.
Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...
Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...
Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...
Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...
19.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
23.06.2017 | Information Technology
23.06.2017 | Materials Sciences
23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy