Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New primate stem cell

01.02.2002


All the replacement tissues with none of the ethical dilemmas?
© Science


Dividing, unfertilised eggs could offer new therapeutic option

US researchers have cloned stem cells from the unfertilized eggs of primates - our closest animal relatives. The achievement suggests it may be possible to grow cells that can give rise to any tissue in the human body without cloning and destroying human embryos.

Some researchers in the field doubt whether the technique will work in humans. And opponents of therapeutic cloning do not believe the new cells solve any of the ethical dilemmas of producing embryonic stem (ES) cells.



Michael West at Advanced Cell Technology (ACT) in Worcester, Massachusetts, and colleagues tricked macaque egg cells into dividing without having first been fertilized. They used a chemical cocktail similar to the one sperm use to make eggs divide.

The dodge - called parthenogenesis - is done routinely with laboratory mice but ACT is the first to pull it off in primates. The resulting cells, called parthenotes, are clones of their mother. Experiments in mice suggest that parthenote embryos die before developing normally.

Stem-cell researchers’ ultimate goal is to replace any malfunctioning body tissue, such as diabetics faulty pancreas cells or the degrading nerve sheaths in multiple sclerosis patients. One of their greatest challenges is to get stem cells to commit to becoming a particular cell type - a process called differentiation.

Primate parthenotes are, if anything, easier to grow into different tissue types than ES cells, says West: "It’s all there: skin with hair follicles, developing eye tissue." His team even managed to create nerve cells that could produce dopamine. Human equivalents could replace the brain cells destroyed by Parkinson’s disease.

Limited application

"It’s an interesting step," says Harry Griffin, of the Roslin Institute in Scotland, birthplace of Dolly the cloned sheep. But he doubts whether parthenotes will provide an alternative to therapeutic cloning - itself a long way from becoming a medical reality.

Azim Surani, a developmental biologist at Cambridge University in England agrees: Parthenote cells lack the influence of male chromosomes, which have subtle effects on cell growth and development. Although West’s cells grow in the test tube, "we cannot assume that they will behave normally when implanted in an organism," he says.

Plus stem cell therapy aims to produce cells from the patient’s own tissue that exactly match their bodies cells. And the majority of diseases that stem cells would treat are age-related. Older women no longer produce egg cells from which to make parthenote stem cells, says Griffin.

West admits that parthenotes’ potential is not fully understood. But he feels that their ready availability could be a boon to stem-cell science. "Medical researchers need to have options," he says.

Still controversial

Unfortunately parthenotes don’t side-step all objections to creating human embryos as a source of stem cells. "The ethical issue is not solved by this," says Bill Saunders, spokesman for the Washington DC-based Family Research Council, which opposes the use of embryos in research.

Parthenotes, although unfertilized, do form embryos, so they are living, Saunders argues. "Single-celled organisms that have the capacity to divide and grow are a member of the human species," he says.

References

  1. Cibelli, J. B. et al. Parthenogenetic Stem Cells in Nonhuman Primates. Science, 295, 465(2002).


TOM CLARKE | © Nature News Service

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed
18.01.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht 127 at one blow...
18.01.2017 | Stiftung Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A big nano boost for solar cells

18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Glass's off-kilter harmonies

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed

18.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>